Elevated circulating platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been reported in conditions associated with thrombotic risk. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between circulating platelet-derived EV levels, cardiovascular risk stratification and vascular organ damage, as assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV). A total of 92 patients were included in the present analysis. Platelet EV were evaluated by flow cytometry (CD41+/Annexin v+). The cardiovascular risk was determined using the 2021 ESC guideline stratification and SCORE2 and SCORE-OP. PWV was performed as a surrogate to assess macrovascular damage. Risk stratification revealed significant group differences in EV levels (ANOVA, p = 0.04). Post hoc analysis demonstrated significantly higher levels of EVs in the very high-risk group compared with the young participants (12.53 ± 8.69 vs. 7.51 ± 4.67 EV/µL, p = 0.03). Linear regression models showed SCORE2 and SCORE-OP ( p = 0.04) was a predictor of EV levels. EVs showed a significant association with macrovascular organ damage measured by PWV ( p = 0.01). PWV progressively increased with more severe cardiovascular risk ( p < 0.001) and was also associated with SCORE2 and SCORE-OP ( p < 0.001). Within the pooled group of subjects with low to moderate risk and young participants (<40 years), those with EV levels in the highest tertile had a trend towards higher nocturnal blood pressure levels, fasting glucose concentration, lipid levels, homocysteine and PWV. Levels of platelet-derived EVs were highest in those patients with very high CV risk. Within a pooled group of patients with low to moderate risk, an unfavourable cardiometabolic profile was present with higher EV levels.