Association between vitamin K1 intake and mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort

Claire R Palmer, Jamie W Bellinge, Frederik Dalgaard, Marc Sim, Kevin Murray, Emma Connolly, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Catherine P Bondonno, Kevin D Croft, Gunnar Gislason, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Carl Schultz, Joshua R Lewis, Jonathan M Hodgson, Nicola P Bondonno

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Reported associations between vitamin K1 and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality are conflicting. The 56,048 participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health prospective cohort study, with a median [IQR] age of 56 [52-60] years at entry and of whom 47.6% male, were followed for 23 years, with 14,083 reported deaths. Of these, 5015 deaths were CVD-related, and 6342 deaths were cancer-related. Intake of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) was estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and its relationship with mortality outcomes was investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. A moderate to high (87-192 µg/d) intake of vitamin K1 was associated with a lower risk of all-cause [HR (95%CI) for quintile 5 vs quintile 1: 0.76 (0.72, 0.79)], cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related [quintile 5 vs quintile 1: 0.72 (0.66, 0.79)], and cancer-related mortality [quintile 5 vs quintile 1: 0.80 (0.75, 0.86)], after adjusting for demographic and lifestyle confounders. The association between vitamin K1 intake and cardiovascular disease-related mortality was present in all subpopulations (categorised according to sex, smoking status, diabetes status, and hypertension status), while the association with cancer-related mortality was only present in current/former smokers (p for interaction = 0.002). These findings suggest that promoting adequate intakes of foods rich in vitamin K1 may help to reduce all-cause, CVD-related, and cancer-related mortality at the population level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1005-1014
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number10
Early online date30 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


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