The insulin (INS) and IGF 2 (IGF2) genes are in close proximity to each other and undergo maternal imprinting during fetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal and umbilical cord IGF 2 protein (IGF-II) levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the INS and IGF2 genes in 207 healthy African-American mother-newborn pairs. No association was found between maternal IGF-II levels and polymorphism in the INS-IGF2 locus. A significant association was found between newborn IGF-II levels and two SNPs (rs3842738 and rs689) at the 5' end of the INS-IGF2 focus. Analyses of haplotypes inferred from these two SNPs demonstrate a significant relationship between paternally transmitted haplotypes and newborn IGF-II levels, but no association with maternally transmitted haplotypes.
Adkins, R. M., Fain, J. N., Krushkal, J., Klauser, C. K., Magann, P., & Morrison, J. C. (2007). Association Between Paternally Inherited Haplotypes Upstream of the Insulin Gene and Umbilical Cord IGF-II Levels. Pediatric Research, 62(4), 451-455. https://doi.org/10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181425841