Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: A cohort study

Wenxing Sun, Peter Jacoby, Thomas Riley, J. Bowman, A.J. Leach, Harvey Coates, S. Weeks, A. Cripps, Deborah Lehmann

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Abstract

Background: Household transmission of influenza-like illness (ILI) may vary with viral and demographic characteristics. We examined the effect of these factors in a population-based sample of adults with ILI. Methods:We conducted a prospective cohort study in community-dwelling Australian adults nested within an influenza vaccine effectiveness trial. On presentation with ILI, participants were swabbed for a range of respiratory viruses and asked to return a questionnaire collecting details of household members with or without similar symptoms. We used logistic and Poisson regression to assess the key characteristics of household transmission. Results: 258 participants from multi-occupancy households experienced 279 ILI episodes and returned a questionnaire. Of these, 183 were the primary case in the household allowing assessment of factors associated with transmission. Transmission was significantly associated in univariate analyses with female sex (27% vs. 13%, risk ratio (RR) = 2.13 (1.08, 4.21)) and the presence of a child in the house (33% vs. 17%, RR = 1.90 (1.11, 3.26)). The secondary household attack proportion (SHAP) was 0.14, higher if influenza was isolated (RR = 2.1 (1.0, 4.5)). Vaccinated participants who nonetheless became infected with influenza had a higher SHAP (Incidence RR = 5.24 (2.17, 12.6)). Conclusions: The increased SHAP in households of vaccinated participants who nonetheless had confirmed influenza infection supports the hypothesis that in years of vaccine mismatch, not only is influenza vaccine less protective for the vaccine recipient, but that the population’s immunity is also lower.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)366
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2012

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Western Australia
Otitis Media
Cohort Studies
Human Influenza
Odds Ratio
Influenza Vaccines
Vaccines
Independent Living
Population
Immunity
Logistic Models
Demography
Prospective Studies
Viruses
Incidence

Cite this

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title = "Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: A cohort study",
abstract = "Background: Household transmission of influenza-like illness (ILI) may vary with viral and demographic characteristics. We examined the effect of these factors in a population-based sample of adults with ILI. Methods:We conducted a prospective cohort study in community-dwelling Australian adults nested within an influenza vaccine effectiveness trial. On presentation with ILI, participants were swabbed for a range of respiratory viruses and asked to return a questionnaire collecting details of household members with or without similar symptoms. We used logistic and Poisson regression to assess the key characteristics of household transmission. Results: 258 participants from multi-occupancy households experienced 279 ILI episodes and returned a questionnaire. Of these, 183 were the primary case in the household allowing assessment of factors associated with transmission. Transmission was significantly associated in univariate analyses with female sex (27{\%} vs. 13{\%}, risk ratio (RR) = 2.13 (1.08, 4.21)) and the presence of a child in the house (33{\%} vs. 17{\%}, RR = 1.90 (1.11, 3.26)). The secondary household attack proportion (SHAP) was 0.14, higher if influenza was isolated (RR = 2.1 (1.0, 4.5)). Vaccinated participants who nonetheless became infected with influenza had a higher SHAP (Incidence RR = 5.24 (2.17, 12.6)). Conclusions: The increased SHAP in households of vaccinated participants who nonetheless had confirmed influenza infection supports the hypothesis that in years of vaccine mismatch, not only is influenza vaccine less protective for the vaccine recipient, but that the population’s immunity is also lower.",
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Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: A cohort study. / Sun, Wenxing; Jacoby, Peter; Riley, Thomas; Bowman, J.; Leach, A.J.; Coates, Harvey; Weeks, S.; Cripps, A.; Lehmann, Deborah.

In: BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, 21.12.2012, p. 366.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: A cohort study

AU - Sun, Wenxing

AU - Jacoby, Peter

AU - Riley, Thomas

AU - Bowman, J.

AU - Leach, A.J.

AU - Coates, Harvey

AU - Weeks, S.

AU - Cripps, A.

AU - Lehmann, Deborah

PY - 2012/12/21

Y1 - 2012/12/21

N2 - Background: Household transmission of influenza-like illness (ILI) may vary with viral and demographic characteristics. We examined the effect of these factors in a population-based sample of adults with ILI. Methods:We conducted a prospective cohort study in community-dwelling Australian adults nested within an influenza vaccine effectiveness trial. On presentation with ILI, participants were swabbed for a range of respiratory viruses and asked to return a questionnaire collecting details of household members with or without similar symptoms. We used logistic and Poisson regression to assess the key characteristics of household transmission. Results: 258 participants from multi-occupancy households experienced 279 ILI episodes and returned a questionnaire. Of these, 183 were the primary case in the household allowing assessment of factors associated with transmission. Transmission was significantly associated in univariate analyses with female sex (27% vs. 13%, risk ratio (RR) = 2.13 (1.08, 4.21)) and the presence of a child in the house (33% vs. 17%, RR = 1.90 (1.11, 3.26)). The secondary household attack proportion (SHAP) was 0.14, higher if influenza was isolated (RR = 2.1 (1.0, 4.5)). Vaccinated participants who nonetheless became infected with influenza had a higher SHAP (Incidence RR = 5.24 (2.17, 12.6)). Conclusions: The increased SHAP in households of vaccinated participants who nonetheless had confirmed influenza infection supports the hypothesis that in years of vaccine mismatch, not only is influenza vaccine less protective for the vaccine recipient, but that the population’s immunity is also lower.

AB - Background: Household transmission of influenza-like illness (ILI) may vary with viral and demographic characteristics. We examined the effect of these factors in a population-based sample of adults with ILI. Methods:We conducted a prospective cohort study in community-dwelling Australian adults nested within an influenza vaccine effectiveness trial. On presentation with ILI, participants were swabbed for a range of respiratory viruses and asked to return a questionnaire collecting details of household members with or without similar symptoms. We used logistic and Poisson regression to assess the key characteristics of household transmission. Results: 258 participants from multi-occupancy households experienced 279 ILI episodes and returned a questionnaire. Of these, 183 were the primary case in the household allowing assessment of factors associated with transmission. Transmission was significantly associated in univariate analyses with female sex (27% vs. 13%, risk ratio (RR) = 2.13 (1.08, 4.21)) and the presence of a child in the house (33% vs. 17%, RR = 1.90 (1.11, 3.26)). The secondary household attack proportion (SHAP) was 0.14, higher if influenza was isolated (RR = 2.1 (1.0, 4.5)). Vaccinated participants who nonetheless became infected with influenza had a higher SHAP (Incidence RR = 5.24 (2.17, 12.6)). Conclusions: The increased SHAP in households of vaccinated participants who nonetheless had confirmed influenza infection supports the hypothesis that in years of vaccine mismatch, not only is influenza vaccine less protective for the vaccine recipient, but that the population’s immunity is also lower.

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2334-12-366

DO - 10.1186/1471-2334-12-366

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 366

JO - BMC Infectious Diseases

JF - BMC Infectious Diseases

SN - 1471-2334

ER -