Association Between Diabetes, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Outcomes in People With Heart Failure From Asia

ASIAN‐HF (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure) Registry Investigators, Tiew Hwa Katherine Teng

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and heart failure (HF) are pathophysiologically linked and increasing in prevalence in Asian populations, but little is known about the interplay of DM and CKD on outcomes in HF. Objectives: This study sought to investigate outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) vs heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in relation to the presence of DM and CKD. Methods: Using the multinational ASIAN-HF registry, we investigated associations between DM only, CKD only, and DM+CKD with: 1) composite of 1-year mortality or HF hospitalization; and 2) Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores, according to HF subtype. Results: In 5,239 patients with HF (74.6% HFrEF, 25.4% HFpEF; mean age 63 years; 29.1% female), 1,107 (21.1%) had DM only, 1,087 (20.7%) had CKD only, and 1,400 (26.7%) had DM+CKD. Compared with patients without DM nor CKD, DM+CKD was associated with 1-year all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization in HFrEF (adjusted HR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.68-2.55) and HFpEF (HR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.40-4.02). In HFrEF, DM only and CKD only were associated with 1-year all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization (both HRs: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.80), while in HFpEF, CKD only (HR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.46-4.41) but not DM only (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.52-1.95) was associated with increased risk (interaction P < 0.01). Adjusted Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores were lower in patients with DM+CKD (HFrEF: mean 60.50, SEM 0.77, HFpEF: mean 70.10, SEM 1.06; P < 0.001) than with no DM or CKD (HFrEF: mean 66.00, SEM 0.65; and HFpEF: mean 75.80, SEM 0.99). Conclusions: Combined DM and CKD adversely effected outcomes independently of HF subtype, with CKD a consistent predictor of worse outcomes. Strategies to prevent and treat DM and CKD in HF are urgently required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-621
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Asia
Volume3
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2023

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