While the routine mitochondrial extraction and isolation protocols have not fundamentally changed since the introduction of density gradients, the approaches we use to examine the proteome have. The initial characterisation of mitochondrial proteomes was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 2001 and gel spot mass spectrometry have now largely been superseded as the throughput and sensitivity of commercial mass spectrometers increases. Whist many of these early studies established the components of the mitochondrial proteome, as gels were replaced by gel free approaches the numbers of confirmed components rapidly increased. In this chapter we present gel-based approaches for the separation and concentration of mitochondrial proteins for their characterization by mass spectrometry. We also describe two gel-free approaches which can be used to quantity the degree of contamination arising during the isolation of mitochondria. These approaches are equally suitable for studies comparing one treatment to another.