Transport of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle substrates across mitochondrial membranes and their subsequent oxidative decarboxylation in the matrix provide reductants for respiration-coupled ATP synthesis. These processes are typically assessed together through the ability of mitochondria to consume oxygen or release carbon dioxide, however, this approach fails to assess or separate the complexity of transport and the subsequent metabolism of substrates and products. In this chapter, we provide a strategy for simultaneously measuring substrate transport and utilization by isolated mitochondria using a mass spectrometry-based technique. The results of cofeeding of isolated mitochondria with unlabeled malate and uniformly labeled pyruvate is used as an example. Mitochondria fed with substrates are separated from the extramitochondrial space by centrifugation through a single layer of silicone oil. Analysis of mitochondrial pellet and reaction supernatant enable quantitation of substrate import and product export. This method also allows an estimation of the contribution of different enzymatic pathways to the formation of a specific product. This assay opens opportunities to verify carrier functions in organello and to identify the substrate preferences of mitochondrial transporters of unknown function using targeted and/or untargeted metabolomics approaches.