Ascochyta blight ( AB), caused by Ascochyta rabiei is a major disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.), especially in areas where cool, cloudy, and humid weather persists during the crop season. Several epidemics of AB causing complete yield loss have been reported. The fungus mainly survives between seasons through infected seed and in infected crop debris. Despite extensive pathological and molecular studies, the nature and extent of pathogenic variability in A. rabiei have not been clearly established. Accumulation of phenols, phytoalexins ( medicarpin and maackiain), and hydrolytic enzymes has been associated with host-plant resistance (HPR). Seed treatment and foliar application of fungicides are commonly recommended for AB management, but further information on biology and survival of A. rabiei is needed to devise more effective management strategies. Recent studies on inheritance of AB resistance indicate that several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) control resistance. In this paper we review the biology of A. rabiei, HPR, and management options, with an emphasis on future research priorities.