Arts and Language

Malcolm Mintz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapterpeer-review


This chapter opens with a discussion of the musical instruments which were used at the turn of the sixteenth century. Sections include bells and gongs, rhythm sticks, drums, the wind instruments and strings. Time is taken to describe the construction of such instruments where this information is available. Section 2 is a short discussion of dance, associated with both religion and leisure, and in Section 3 is an extended presentation of songs, verses and chants. Examined here are those songs and verses which had a connection with religion, births and deaths, leisure and work. Included is a discussion of poetic forms with examples from Tagalog and Bikol, and an extended description of those forms found in the eastern Visayas. Section 4 looks at the presentation of narratives and the skill of individuals in delivering relevant and interesting stories. This is carried through to Section 5 which examines the way individuals spoke to one another and how good or bad they were at communicating.

Language is the focus of Section 6, examining the effect a variety of languages spoken in close proximity had on the ability of individuals to communicate, including the language choices which had to be made, and the mixing of elements of two languages which were expected to be kept apart. Section 7 discusses the alphabet and writing, its possible origin and spread through the islands. Included is a description of the alphabet itself, and the materials used in writing. Ending the chapter is a final section on painting and sculpture, how designs were executed, which colours dominated and how these were applied.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
Subtitle of host publicationMonograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century with particular reference to the Bikol region
EditorsCarolyn Brewer
Place of PublicationAustralia
PublisherThe Australian National University
ISBN (Electronic)9780646568195
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2019

Publication series

NameIntersections: Gender, and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific
ISSN (Print)1440-9151


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