Global eye health is defined as the degree to which vision, ocular health, and function are maximised worldwide, thereby optimising overall wellbeing and quality of life. Improving eye health is a global priority as a key to unlocking human potential by reducing the morbidity burden of disease, increasing productivity, and supporting access to education. Although extraordinary progress fuelled by global eye health initiatives has been made over the last decade, there remain substantial challenges impeding further progress. The accelerated development of digital health and artificial intelligence (AI) applications provides an opportunity to transform eye health, from facilitating and increasing access to eye care to supporting clinical decision making with an objective, data-driven approach. Here, we explore the opportunities and challenges presented by digital health and AI in global eye health and describe how these technologies could be leveraged to improve global eye health. AI, telehealth, and emerging technologies have great potential, but require specific work to overcome barriers to implementation. We suggest that a global digital eye health task force could facilitate coordination of funding, infrastructural development, and democratisation of AI and digital health to drive progress forwards in this domain.