Arsenic in Rice Soils and Potential Agronomic Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Arsenic Bioavailability: A Review

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27 Citations (Scopus)


Soils used for rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation in some areas contain high concentrations of arsenic (As) due to irrigation with groundwater containing As and intensive use of agrochemicals or industrial residues containing As. To restrict rice uptake of As in these soils, approaches to reduce As input and bioavailability must be considered. One approach to reduce As input into rice soils or uptake by rice is cultivating rice under aerobic, intermittent flooding, or alternate wetting and drying (AWD) conditions, rather than in submerged soils, or use of irrigation water low in As. For reducing As bioavailability in soil, aerobic or AWD rice culture and application of biochar, sulfur (S), and/or rice polish to soil are promising. Moreover, use of As-hyperaccumulating plant species (e.g., Pteris vittata L.) in rotation or combinations with favourable plant species (e.g., Azolla, Chlorella, or Nannochloropsis species) can also be promoted, in addition to using rice cultivars that are tolerant to As. Though applications of high doses of phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), and silicon (Si) fertilizers have shown promise in many instances, these methods have to be practiced carefully, because negative effects have also been reported, although such incidents are rare. Major factors affecting As speciation and bioavailability in soil are chemical properties such as redox status, pH, and Fe, P, Si, and S concentrations, physical properties such as texture and organic matter, and biological properties such as methylation activity by soil microorganisms. However, as many of these factors interact, long-term examination under field conditions is needed before measures are recommended for and implemented in farmers' fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-382
Number of pages20
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


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