Arracacha virus A, a newly recognised virus infecting arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza; Umbelliferae) in the Peruvian Andes


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Arracacha virus A (AVA), a previously undescribed virus, is common in arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza; Umbelliferae) in the Huanuco region of the Peruvian Andes. AVA was not transmitted by Myzus persicae, but was transmitted by inoculation of sap to 38 species from 10 families out of 63 species from 12 families tested. AVA was best propagated and assayed in Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana clevelandii in which it caused severe diseases. Sap from infected C. quinoa was occasionally infective after dilution to 10‐4 but not 10‐5, after 10 min at 65 °C but not 70 °C, and after 15 days at 20 °C. In neutral phosphotungstate, AVA has isometric particles c. 26 nm in diameter with a hexagonal profile, some of which were either fully or partially penetrated by the negative stain. Up to 50–200 E2601cm units of purified virus was obtained from 1 kg of infected N. clevelandii leaf by extraction in 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 containing 0.05 M ethylene diaminetetra‐acetate, and clarification with chloroform, followed by differential precipitation with ammonium sulphate and three cycles of differential centrifugation. Purified virus sedimented as three components with sedimentation coefficients (S20w°) of 50 S, 92 S and 125 S and E260/E280 ratios of 0.65, 1.50 and 1.85 respectively. At equilibrium in CsCl gradients, buoyant densities of the 50, 92 and 125 S components were 1.32, 1.45 and 1.52 g/cm3 respectively. From the sedimentation coefficients and buoyant densities, the nucleic acid contents of the 92 S and 125 S components were estimated at 30–35% and 43–44% respectively. Only the 125 S component seemed to be infective but its infectivity was greater when mixed with the 92 S component. All three components contained a single protein with a molecular weight of 53 000. AVA was not serologically related to any of 33 other morphologically similar viruses. Although the vector is unknown, its properties suggest that it is a member of the nepovirus group. The cryptogram of AVA is */*: */43–44 +*/30–35: S/S:S/*.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-91
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Applied Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1978
Externally publishedYes


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