Arctic kelp forests: Diversity, resilience and future

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Thomas Wernberg, Stein Fredriksen, Kjell Magnus Norderhaug, Morten Foldager Pedersen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing places on Earth and it is a sentinel region for understanding the range and magnitude of planetary changes, and their impacts on ecosystems. However, our understanding of arctic coastal ecosystems remains limited, and the impacts of ongoing and future climate change on them are largely unexplored. Kelp forests are the dominant habitat along many rocky Arctic coastlines, providing structure and food for economically and ecologically important species. Here we synthesize existing information on the distribution and diversity of arctic kelp forests and assess how ongoing changes in environmental conditions could impact the extent, productivity, and resilience of these important ecosystems. We identify regions where the range and growth of arctic kelp are likely to undergo rapid short-term increase due to reduced sea ice cover, increased light, and warming. However, we also describe areas where kelps could be negatively impacted by rising freshwater input and coastal erosion due to receding sea ice and melting permafrost. In some regions, arctic kelp forests have undergone sudden regime shifts due to altered ecological interactions or changing environmental conditions. Key knowledge gaps for arctic kelp forests include measures of extent and diversity of kelp communities (especially northern Canada and northeastern Russia), the faunal communities supported by many of these habitats, and the role of arctic kelp forests in structuring nearby pelagic and benthic food webs. Filling in these gaps and strategically prioritizing research in areas of rapid environmental change will enable more effective management of these important habitats, and better predictions of future changes in the coastal ecosystems they support and the services that they provide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalGlobal and Planetary Change
Volume172
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Cite this

Filbee-Dexter, K., Wernberg, T., Fredriksen, S., Norderhaug, K. M., & Pedersen, M. F. (2019). Arctic kelp forests: Diversity, resilience and future. Global and Planetary Change, 172, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.09.005
Filbee-Dexter, Karen ; Wernberg, Thomas ; Fredriksen, Stein ; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus ; Pedersen, Morten Foldager. / Arctic kelp forests : Diversity, resilience and future. In: Global and Planetary Change. 2019 ; Vol. 172. pp. 1-14.
@article{fbbd5e0a4c6f49869fc2d72e8b8ed3e0,
title = "Arctic kelp forests: Diversity, resilience and future",
abstract = "The Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing places on Earth and it is a sentinel region for understanding the range and magnitude of planetary changes, and their impacts on ecosystems. However, our understanding of arctic coastal ecosystems remains limited, and the impacts of ongoing and future climate change on them are largely unexplored. Kelp forests are the dominant habitat along many rocky Arctic coastlines, providing structure and food for economically and ecologically important species. Here we synthesize existing information on the distribution and diversity of arctic kelp forests and assess how ongoing changes in environmental conditions could impact the extent, productivity, and resilience of these important ecosystems. We identify regions where the range and growth of arctic kelp are likely to undergo rapid short-term increase due to reduced sea ice cover, increased light, and warming. However, we also describe areas where kelps could be negatively impacted by rising freshwater input and coastal erosion due to receding sea ice and melting permafrost. In some regions, arctic kelp forests have undergone sudden regime shifts due to altered ecological interactions or changing environmental conditions. Key knowledge gaps for arctic kelp forests include measures of extent and diversity of kelp communities (especially northern Canada and northeastern Russia), the faunal communities supported by many of these habitats, and the role of arctic kelp forests in structuring nearby pelagic and benthic food webs. Filling in these gaps and strategically prioritizing research in areas of rapid environmental change will enable more effective management of these important habitats, and better predictions of future changes in the coastal ecosystems they support and the services that they provide.",
keywords = "Seaweed, Climate change, Polar, Sea ice loss, Borealization, LAMINARIA-SOLIDUNGULA, CLIMATE-CHANGE, SEA OTTERS, STRONGYLOCENTROTUS-DROEBACHIENSIS, NEARSHORE FISHES, BOULDER PATCH, UV-RADIATION, BEAUFORT SEA, FOOD-WEB, MARINE",
author = "Karen Filbee-Dexter and Thomas Wernberg and Stein Fredriksen and Norderhaug, {Kjell Magnus} and Pedersen, {Morten Foldager}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.09.005",
language = "English",
volume = "172",
pages = "1--14",
journal = "Global and Planetary Change",
issn = "0921-8181",
publisher = "Pergamon",

}

Filbee-Dexter, K, Wernberg, T, Fredriksen, S, Norderhaug, KM & Pedersen, MF 2019, 'Arctic kelp forests: Diversity, resilience and future' Global and Planetary Change, vol. 172, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.09.005

Arctic kelp forests : Diversity, resilience and future. / Filbee-Dexter, Karen; Wernberg, Thomas; Fredriksen, Stein; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Pedersen, Morten Foldager.

In: Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 172, 01.2019, p. 1-14.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Arctic kelp forests

T2 - Diversity, resilience and future

AU - Filbee-Dexter, Karen

AU - Wernberg, Thomas

AU - Fredriksen, Stein

AU - Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus

AU - Pedersen, Morten Foldager

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - The Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing places on Earth and it is a sentinel region for understanding the range and magnitude of planetary changes, and their impacts on ecosystems. However, our understanding of arctic coastal ecosystems remains limited, and the impacts of ongoing and future climate change on them are largely unexplored. Kelp forests are the dominant habitat along many rocky Arctic coastlines, providing structure and food for economically and ecologically important species. Here we synthesize existing information on the distribution and diversity of arctic kelp forests and assess how ongoing changes in environmental conditions could impact the extent, productivity, and resilience of these important ecosystems. We identify regions where the range and growth of arctic kelp are likely to undergo rapid short-term increase due to reduced sea ice cover, increased light, and warming. However, we also describe areas where kelps could be negatively impacted by rising freshwater input and coastal erosion due to receding sea ice and melting permafrost. In some regions, arctic kelp forests have undergone sudden regime shifts due to altered ecological interactions or changing environmental conditions. Key knowledge gaps for arctic kelp forests include measures of extent and diversity of kelp communities (especially northern Canada and northeastern Russia), the faunal communities supported by many of these habitats, and the role of arctic kelp forests in structuring nearby pelagic and benthic food webs. Filling in these gaps and strategically prioritizing research in areas of rapid environmental change will enable more effective management of these important habitats, and better predictions of future changes in the coastal ecosystems they support and the services that they provide.

AB - The Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing places on Earth and it is a sentinel region for understanding the range and magnitude of planetary changes, and their impacts on ecosystems. However, our understanding of arctic coastal ecosystems remains limited, and the impacts of ongoing and future climate change on them are largely unexplored. Kelp forests are the dominant habitat along many rocky Arctic coastlines, providing structure and food for economically and ecologically important species. Here we synthesize existing information on the distribution and diversity of arctic kelp forests and assess how ongoing changes in environmental conditions could impact the extent, productivity, and resilience of these important ecosystems. We identify regions where the range and growth of arctic kelp are likely to undergo rapid short-term increase due to reduced sea ice cover, increased light, and warming. However, we also describe areas where kelps could be negatively impacted by rising freshwater input and coastal erosion due to receding sea ice and melting permafrost. In some regions, arctic kelp forests have undergone sudden regime shifts due to altered ecological interactions or changing environmental conditions. Key knowledge gaps for arctic kelp forests include measures of extent and diversity of kelp communities (especially northern Canada and northeastern Russia), the faunal communities supported by many of these habitats, and the role of arctic kelp forests in structuring nearby pelagic and benthic food webs. Filling in these gaps and strategically prioritizing research in areas of rapid environmental change will enable more effective management of these important habitats, and better predictions of future changes in the coastal ecosystems they support and the services that they provide.

KW - Seaweed

KW - Climate change

KW - Polar

KW - Sea ice loss

KW - Borealization

KW - LAMINARIA-SOLIDUNGULA

KW - CLIMATE-CHANGE

KW - SEA OTTERS

KW - STRONGYLOCENTROTUS-DROEBACHIENSIS

KW - NEARSHORE FISHES

KW - BOULDER PATCH

KW - UV-RADIATION

KW - BEAUFORT SEA

KW - FOOD-WEB

KW - MARINE

U2 - 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.09.005

DO - 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.09.005

M3 - Review article

VL - 172

SP - 1

EP - 14

JO - Global and Planetary Change

JF - Global and Planetary Change

SN - 0921-8181

ER -