Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem afflicting millions of people worldwide. Early detection methods are lacking, and current therapies have significant limitations. Recently, there has been a surge in the number of studies investigating the utilisation of nanoparticles in cardiovascular imaging and therapy. With respect to cardiovascular imaging, previous studies have looked at the role of nanoparticles in thrombus formation, angiogenesis, blood pool and stem cell imaging. Whereas, with respect to therapy, nanoparticles have been studied for delivering drugs and nucleic acids, specifically to the site of interest; in the context of cardiac regeneration; and its potential in refining current therapy guidelines for CVD management. This review aims to extensively summarise the studies that have been conducted investigating the role of nanoparticles in different aspects of cardiovascular imaging and therapy.