In this study, biochars derived from waste fiberboard biomass were applied in tetracycline (TC) removal in aqueous solution. Biochar samples were prepared by slow pyrolysis at 300, 500, and 800°C, and were characterized by ultimate analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), etc. The effects of ionic strength (0–1.0 mol/L of NaCl), initial TC concentration (2.5–60 ppm), biochar dosage (1.5–2.5 g/L), and initial pH (2–10) were systemically determined. The results present that biochar prepared at 800°C (BC800) generally possesses the highest aromatization degree and surface area with abundant pyridinic N (N-6) and accordingly shows a better removal efficiency (68.6%) than the other two biochar samples. Adsorption isotherm data were better fitted by the Freundlich model (R2 is 0.94) than the Langmuir model (R2 is 0.85). Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption process is endothermic and mainly physical in nature with the values of ΔH0 being 48.0 kJ/mol, ΔS0 being 157.1 J/mol/K, and ΔG0 varying from 1.02 to −2.14 kJ/mol. The graphite-like structure in biochar enables the π-π interactions with a ring structure in the TC molecule, which, together with the N-6 acting as electron donor, is the main driving force of the adsorption process.