Antimicrobial resistance in Clostridioides difficile

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    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Clostridioides difficile remains a significant threat to global healthcare systems, not just for the treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI), but as a reservoir of AMR genes that could be potentially transferred to other pathogens. The mechanisms of resistance for several antimicrobials such as metronidazole and MLSB-class agents are only beginning to be elucidated, and increasingly, there is evidence that previously unconsidered mechanisms such as plasmid-mediated resistance may play an important role in AMR in this bacterium. In this review, the genetics of AMR in C. difficile will be described, along with a discussion of the factors contributing to the difficulty in clearly determining the true burden of AMR in C. difficile and how it affects the treatment of CDI.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2459-2478
    Number of pages20
    JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
    Issue number12
    Early online date24 Aug 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


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