Antifungal and Antiaflatoxigenic Activities of Different Plant Extracts against Aspergillus flavus

Said I. Behiry, Najwa A. Hamad, Fatimah O. Alotibi, Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar, Amr A. Arishi, Ahmed M. Kenawy, Ibrahim A. Elsamra, Nesrine H. Youssef, Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy, Ahmed Abdelkhalek, Ahmed A. Heflish

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In the current study, four organic solvents, including ethanol, methanol, acetone, and diethyl ether, were used to extract turmeric, wheat bran, and taro peel. The efficiency of three different concentrations of each solvent was assessed for their antifungal and anti-mycotoxin production against Aspergillus flavus. The results indicated that 75% ethanolic and 25% methanolic extracts of taro peels and turmeric were active against fungus growth, which showed the smallest fungal dry weight ratios of 1.61 and 2.82, respectively. Furthermore, the 25% ethanolic extract of turmeric showed the best result (90.78%) in inhibiting aflatoxin B1 production. After 30 days of grain storage, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production was effectively inhibited, and the average inhibition ratio ranged between 4.46% and 69.01%. Simultaneously, the Topsin fungicide resulted in an inhibition ratio of 143.92%. Taro extract (25% acetone) produced the highest total phenolic content (61.28 mg GAE/g dry extract wt.) and showed an antioxidant capacity of 7.45 μg/mL, followed by turmeric 25% ethanol (49.82 mg GAE/g), which revealed the highest antioxidant capacity (74.16 μg/mL). RT-qPCR analysis indicated that the expression of aflD, aflP, and aflQ (structural genes) and aflR and aflS (regulatory genes) was down-regulated significantly compared to both untreated and Topsin-treated maize grains. Finally, the results showed that all three plant extracts could be used as promising source materials for potential products to control aflatoxin formation, thus creating a safer method for grain storage in the environment than the currently used protective method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12908
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022

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