Antibiotic treatment duration for bloodstream infections in critically ill children - A survey of pediatric infectious diseases and critical care clinicians for clinical equipoise

Sandra Pong, Robert A. Fowler, Srinivas Murthy, Jeffrey M. Pernica, Elaine Gilfoyle, Patricia Fontela, Nicholas Mitsakakis, Asha C. Bowen, Winnie Seto, Michelle Science, James S. Hutchison, Philippe Jouvet, Asgar Rishu, Nick Daneman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective To describe antibiotic treatment durations that pediatric infectious diseases (ID) and critical care clinicians usually recommend for bloodstream infections in critically ill children. Design Anonymous, online practice survey using five common pediatric-based case scenarios of bloodstream infections. Setting Pediatric intensive care units in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Participants Pediatric intensivists, nurse practitioners, ID physicians and pharmacists. Main outcome measures Recommended treatment durations for common infectious syndromes associated with bloodstream infections and willingness to enrol patients into a trial to study treatment duration. Results Among 136 survey respondents, most recommended at least 10 days antibiotics for bloodstream infections associated with: pneumonia (65%), skin/soft tissue (74%), urinary tract (64%) and intra-abdominal infections (drained: 90%; undrained: 99%). For central vascular catheter-associated infections without catheter removal, over 90% clinicians recommended at least 10 days antibiotics, except for infections caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (79%). Recommendations for at least 10 days antibiotics were less common with catheter removal. In multivariable linear regression analyses, lack of source control was significantly associated with longer treatment durations (+5.2 days [95% CI: 4.4-6.1 days] for intra-abdominal infections and +4.1 days [95% CI: 3.8-4.4 days] for central vascular catheter-associated infections). Most clinicians (73-95%, depending on the source of bloodstream infection) would be willing to enrol patients into a trial of shorter versus longer antibiotic treatment duration. Conclusions The majority of clinicians currently recommend at least 10 days of antibiotics for most scenarios of bloodstream infections in critically ill children. There is practice heterogeneity in self-reported treatment duration recommendations among clinicians. Treatment durations were similar across different infectious syndromes. Under appropriate clinical conditions, most clinicians would be willing to enrol patients into a trial of shorter versus longer treatment for common syndromes associated with bloodstream infections.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0272021
JournalPLoS One
Volume17
Issue number7 July
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

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