Background The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China is not determined. This study aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance patterns of H. pylori isolates there. Results A total of 153 (38.5%) H. pylori strains were successfully isolated from 397 patients in People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region, China. The overall resistance rates were as follows: clarithromycin (27.4%), levofloxacin (31.3%), metronidazole (86.2%), amoxicillin (15.6%), tetracycline (0%), furazolidone (0.6%), and rifampicin (73.2%). Only 2.0% of H. pylori isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials, with mono resistance, dual resistance, triple resistance, quadruple resistance, and quintuple resistance being 18.3%, 44.4%, 18.3%, 12.4%, and 4.6%, respectively. The resistance rates to levofloxacin (40.5%) and amoxicillin (21.5%) in strains isolated from female patients were significantly higher than those from male patients (21.6% and 9.5%, respectively). Conclusions This study demonstrates high H. pylori resistance rates to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and rifampicin, whereas moderate resistance to amoxicillin, and negligible resistant to tetracycline, and furazolidone in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. The high resistance to rifampicin warns further investigation of its derivative, rifabutin.