This study explores the chemotactic potential of Bacillus subtilis MB378 against industrial dyes. Initial screening with swim plate assay showed significant movement of Bacillus subtilis MB378 towards test compounds. According to quantitative capillary assay, B. subtilis MB378 exhibited high chemotaxis potential towards Acid Orange 52 (CI: 9.52), followed by Direct Red 28 (CI: 8.39) and Basic Green 4 (CI: 5.21) in glucose-supplemented medium. Sequencing and gene annotation results evidently showed presence of chemotaxis genes and flagellar motor proteins in Bacillus subtilis draft genome. Methyl-accepting proteins (involved in chemotaxis regulation) belonged to pfam00672, pfam00072, and pfam00015 protein families. Annotated chemotaxis machinery of MB378 comprised 8 Che genes, 5 chemoreceptor genes, associated flagellar proteins, and rotary motors. Chemotaxis genes of B. subtilis MB378 were compared with genes of closely related Bacillus strains (168, WK1, and HTA426), depicting highly conserved regions showing evolutionary relation between them. Considering results of present study, it can be speculated that test compounds triggered chemotactic genes, which made these compounds bioavailable to the bacterium. Hence, the bacterium recognized and approached these compounds and facilitated biodegradation and detoxification of these compounds. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].