Golgi and axonal transport techniques have been used to examine the organization of neurons within primary visual cortex, area 17, of the cat. This organization has been compared to that of the primate cortical area 17 as described in previous studies and it is discussed in relationship to the distribution of afferents from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). The visual cortex of the cat and monkey show strong similarities in the laminar positions of neurons projecting extrinscially and also in the restriction of spiny stellate neurons to a central lamina (lamina 4) receiving input from the dLGN. However, lamina 4B in the monkey, which contains spiny stellate neurons but does not receive direct input from the dLGN, has no direct counterpart in cat area 17. Axon projections of spiny stellate neurons in the other divisions of lamina 4 differ in cat and monkey: the small, closely packed neurons in the lowermost division of lamina 4 (4B in the cat, 4Cß in the monkey) project chiefly within lamina 4 in the cat whereas in the monkey they have a strong projection to lamina 3. In the cat, spiny stellate neurons of lamina 4A project upon lamina 3 whereas in the monkey those in the apparently equivalent zone, 4Cα, project upon lamina 4B. Most non‐spiny stellate neurons examined have precisely organized interlaminar axonal projections which differ from the axon trajectories of neighboring spiny neurons.