An overview of timing and structural geometry of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization in the Jiangnan Orogen, southern China

Liang Zhang, Li Qiang Yang, David I. Groves, Si Chen Sun, Yu Liu, Jiu Yi Wang, Rong Hua Li, Sheng Gang Wu, Lei Gao, Jin Long Guo, Xiao Gang Chen, Jun Hui Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The Jiangnan Orogen, located between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks in southern China, hosts significant gold and antimony resources. Long-standing controversies over the number and precise timing of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization event(s), and the genesis of these deposits, limit the understanding and exploration of this giant gold and antimony system. Together with geological evidence, a critical review of the published geochronological data of these deposits suggest that there were two gold events in the Triassic (~235 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (~142–130 Ma), two gold-antimony events in the Early Devonian (~402 Ma) and Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic (~224–163 Ma: possibly equivalent to the two gold events), and one antimony event in the Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma). There are other possible gold events in the Neoproterozoic or at an even older age, and Ordovician to Early Devonian, which are constrained only by limited geological evidence and a few non-robust isotopic ages. The regional distribution of the gold, gold-antimony and antimony districts, and deposits therein, reveal a first-order control on the mineralization by crustal scale faults which acted as ore-forming fluid pathways connected to deep fluid and metal source areas. Second- and third-order faults that are situated along the jogs of the first-order faults, especially fault corridors defined by NNE-NE-trending second-order faults and third-order NW to E-W-trending discontinuous oblique faults, provided favorable locations for Pre-Cretaceous gold-(antimony) mineralization. In addition, NE-trending open anticlines, linked to deep crustal levels by first-order faults, host significant antimony and minor gold mineralization, and the curvilinear Fanjingshan detachment Fault hosts some gold and antimony deposits. Locally, at deposit to orebody-scales, pre-ore barren quartz veins and magmatic dikes were the loci for mineralization in some gold-antimony deposits. The structural geometry of the pre-Cretaceous gold and gold-antimony deposits suggests an Early Devonian orogenic gold-antimony mineralization event during a transpressional tectonic regime related to coeval intracontinental orogeny between the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks. In contrast, Triassic orogenic gold and Triassic-Middle Jurassic orogenic gold-antimony events are interpreted to relate to distal effects of the collision between the North and South China blocks. The structurally-contrasting major Early Cretaceous epizonal antimony mineralization event, together with contemporaneous hydrothermal gold mineralization, is interpreted to have been controlled by normal faults and pre-ore open folds in an extensional tectonic regime related to the distal effects of rollback of the paleo-Pacific Plate after ~135 Ma. For future geoscience-based exploration in the Orogen, documentation and interpretation of critical structural geometries of gold, gold-antimony and antimony deposits is a vital step towards successful target generation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103173
JournalOre Geology Reviews
Volume115
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

Fingerprint

Antimony
antimony
Gold
gold
mineralization
geometry
Geometry
Antimony deposits
Cretaceous
Triassic
Ores
Tectonics
Jurassic
Gold deposits

Cite this

Zhang, Liang ; Yang, Li Qiang ; Groves, David I. ; Sun, Si Chen ; Liu, Yu ; Wang, Jiu Yi ; Li, Rong Hua ; Wu, Sheng Gang ; Gao, Lei ; Guo, Jin Long ; Chen, Xiao Gang ; Chen, Jun Hui. / An overview of timing and structural geometry of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization in the Jiangnan Orogen, southern China. In: Ore Geology Reviews. 2019 ; Vol. 115.
@article{d751fc6c7bb64f9ca988875f06c2053a,
title = "An overview of timing and structural geometry of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization in the Jiangnan Orogen, southern China",
abstract = "The Jiangnan Orogen, located between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks in southern China, hosts significant gold and antimony resources. Long-standing controversies over the number and precise timing of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization event(s), and the genesis of these deposits, limit the understanding and exploration of this giant gold and antimony system. Together with geological evidence, a critical review of the published geochronological data of these deposits suggest that there were two gold events in the Triassic (~235 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (~142–130 Ma), two gold-antimony events in the Early Devonian (~402 Ma) and Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic (~224–163 Ma: possibly equivalent to the two gold events), and one antimony event in the Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma). There are other possible gold events in the Neoproterozoic or at an even older age, and Ordovician to Early Devonian, which are constrained only by limited geological evidence and a few non-robust isotopic ages. The regional distribution of the gold, gold-antimony and antimony districts, and deposits therein, reveal a first-order control on the mineralization by crustal scale faults which acted as ore-forming fluid pathways connected to deep fluid and metal source areas. Second- and third-order faults that are situated along the jogs of the first-order faults, especially fault corridors defined by NNE-NE-trending second-order faults and third-order NW to E-W-trending discontinuous oblique faults, provided favorable locations for Pre-Cretaceous gold-(antimony) mineralization. In addition, NE-trending open anticlines, linked to deep crustal levels by first-order faults, host significant antimony and minor gold mineralization, and the curvilinear Fanjingshan detachment Fault hosts some gold and antimony deposits. Locally, at deposit to orebody-scales, pre-ore barren quartz veins and magmatic dikes were the loci for mineralization in some gold-antimony deposits. The structural geometry of the pre-Cretaceous gold and gold-antimony deposits suggests an Early Devonian orogenic gold-antimony mineralization event during a transpressional tectonic regime related to coeval intracontinental orogeny between the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks. In contrast, Triassic orogenic gold and Triassic-Middle Jurassic orogenic gold-antimony events are interpreted to relate to distal effects of the collision between the North and South China blocks. The structurally-contrasting major Early Cretaceous epizonal antimony mineralization event, together with contemporaneous hydrothermal gold mineralization, is interpreted to have been controlled by normal faults and pre-ore open folds in an extensional tectonic regime related to the distal effects of rollback of the paleo-Pacific Plate after ~135 Ma. For future geoscience-based exploration in the Orogen, documentation and interpretation of critical structural geometries of gold, gold-antimony and antimony deposits is a vital step towards successful target generation.",
keywords = "Antimony deposits, Geochronology, Jiangnan Orogen, Orogenic gold-(antimony) deposits, Structural geometry",
author = "Liang Zhang and Yang, {Li Qiang} and Groves, {David I.} and Sun, {Si Chen} and Yu Liu and Wang, {Jiu Yi} and Li, {Rong Hua} and Wu, {Sheng Gang} and Lei Gao and Guo, {Jin Long} and Chen, {Xiao Gang} and Chen, {Jun Hui}",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103173",
language = "English",
volume = "115",
journal = "Ore Geology Reviews",
issn = "0169-1368",
publisher = "Pergamon",

}

An overview of timing and structural geometry of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization in the Jiangnan Orogen, southern China. / Zhang, Liang; Yang, Li Qiang; Groves, David I.; Sun, Si Chen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jiu Yi; Li, Rong Hua; Wu, Sheng Gang; Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin Long; Chen, Xiao Gang; Chen, Jun Hui.

In: Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 115, 103173, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - An overview of timing and structural geometry of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization in the Jiangnan Orogen, southern China

AU - Zhang, Liang

AU - Yang, Li Qiang

AU - Groves, David I.

AU - Sun, Si Chen

AU - Liu, Yu

AU - Wang, Jiu Yi

AU - Li, Rong Hua

AU - Wu, Sheng Gang

AU - Gao, Lei

AU - Guo, Jin Long

AU - Chen, Xiao Gang

AU - Chen, Jun Hui

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - The Jiangnan Orogen, located between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks in southern China, hosts significant gold and antimony resources. Long-standing controversies over the number and precise timing of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization event(s), and the genesis of these deposits, limit the understanding and exploration of this giant gold and antimony system. Together with geological evidence, a critical review of the published geochronological data of these deposits suggest that there were two gold events in the Triassic (~235 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (~142–130 Ma), two gold-antimony events in the Early Devonian (~402 Ma) and Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic (~224–163 Ma: possibly equivalent to the two gold events), and one antimony event in the Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma). There are other possible gold events in the Neoproterozoic or at an even older age, and Ordovician to Early Devonian, which are constrained only by limited geological evidence and a few non-robust isotopic ages. The regional distribution of the gold, gold-antimony and antimony districts, and deposits therein, reveal a first-order control on the mineralization by crustal scale faults which acted as ore-forming fluid pathways connected to deep fluid and metal source areas. Second- and third-order faults that are situated along the jogs of the first-order faults, especially fault corridors defined by NNE-NE-trending second-order faults and third-order NW to E-W-trending discontinuous oblique faults, provided favorable locations for Pre-Cretaceous gold-(antimony) mineralization. In addition, NE-trending open anticlines, linked to deep crustal levels by first-order faults, host significant antimony and minor gold mineralization, and the curvilinear Fanjingshan detachment Fault hosts some gold and antimony deposits. Locally, at deposit to orebody-scales, pre-ore barren quartz veins and magmatic dikes were the loci for mineralization in some gold-antimony deposits. The structural geometry of the pre-Cretaceous gold and gold-antimony deposits suggests an Early Devonian orogenic gold-antimony mineralization event during a transpressional tectonic regime related to coeval intracontinental orogeny between the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks. In contrast, Triassic orogenic gold and Triassic-Middle Jurassic orogenic gold-antimony events are interpreted to relate to distal effects of the collision between the North and South China blocks. The structurally-contrasting major Early Cretaceous epizonal antimony mineralization event, together with contemporaneous hydrothermal gold mineralization, is interpreted to have been controlled by normal faults and pre-ore open folds in an extensional tectonic regime related to the distal effects of rollback of the paleo-Pacific Plate after ~135 Ma. For future geoscience-based exploration in the Orogen, documentation and interpretation of critical structural geometries of gold, gold-antimony and antimony deposits is a vital step towards successful target generation.

AB - The Jiangnan Orogen, located between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks in southern China, hosts significant gold and antimony resources. Long-standing controversies over the number and precise timing of gold, gold-antimony and antimony mineralization event(s), and the genesis of these deposits, limit the understanding and exploration of this giant gold and antimony system. Together with geological evidence, a critical review of the published geochronological data of these deposits suggest that there were two gold events in the Triassic (~235 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (~142–130 Ma), two gold-antimony events in the Early Devonian (~402 Ma) and Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic (~224–163 Ma: possibly equivalent to the two gold events), and one antimony event in the Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma). There are other possible gold events in the Neoproterozoic or at an even older age, and Ordovician to Early Devonian, which are constrained only by limited geological evidence and a few non-robust isotopic ages. The regional distribution of the gold, gold-antimony and antimony districts, and deposits therein, reveal a first-order control on the mineralization by crustal scale faults which acted as ore-forming fluid pathways connected to deep fluid and metal source areas. Second- and third-order faults that are situated along the jogs of the first-order faults, especially fault corridors defined by NNE-NE-trending second-order faults and third-order NW to E-W-trending discontinuous oblique faults, provided favorable locations for Pre-Cretaceous gold-(antimony) mineralization. In addition, NE-trending open anticlines, linked to deep crustal levels by first-order faults, host significant antimony and minor gold mineralization, and the curvilinear Fanjingshan detachment Fault hosts some gold and antimony deposits. Locally, at deposit to orebody-scales, pre-ore barren quartz veins and magmatic dikes were the loci for mineralization in some gold-antimony deposits. The structural geometry of the pre-Cretaceous gold and gold-antimony deposits suggests an Early Devonian orogenic gold-antimony mineralization event during a transpressional tectonic regime related to coeval intracontinental orogeny between the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks. In contrast, Triassic orogenic gold and Triassic-Middle Jurassic orogenic gold-antimony events are interpreted to relate to distal effects of the collision between the North and South China blocks. The structurally-contrasting major Early Cretaceous epizonal antimony mineralization event, together with contemporaneous hydrothermal gold mineralization, is interpreted to have been controlled by normal faults and pre-ore open folds in an extensional tectonic regime related to the distal effects of rollback of the paleo-Pacific Plate after ~135 Ma. For future geoscience-based exploration in the Orogen, documentation and interpretation of critical structural geometries of gold, gold-antimony and antimony deposits is a vital step towards successful target generation.

KW - Antimony deposits

KW - Geochronology

KW - Jiangnan Orogen

KW - Orogenic gold-(antimony) deposits

KW - Structural geometry

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85073524278&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103173

DO - 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103173

M3 - Review article

VL - 115

JO - Ore Geology Reviews

JF - Ore Geology Reviews

SN - 0169-1368

M1 - 103173

ER -