A 3,300-bp DNA fragment encoding the carboxyl-transferase domain of the multidomain, chloroplastic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) was sequenced in aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP)-resistant and -sensitive Alopecurus myosuroides (Huds.). No resistant plant contained an Ile-1,781-Leu substitution, previously shown to confer resistance to APPs and cyclohexanediones (CHDs). Instead, an Ile-2,041-Asn substitution was found in resistant plants. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed that Asn-2,041 ACCase alleles derived from several distinct origins. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction associated the presence of Asn-2,041 with seedling resistance to APPs but not to CHDs. ACCase enzyme assays confirmed that Asn-2,041 ACCase activity was moderately resistant to CHDs but highly resistant to APPs. Thus, the Ile-2,041-Asn substitution, which is located outside a domain previously shown to control sensitivity to APPs and CHDs in wheat (Triticum aestivum), is a direct cause of resistance to APPs only. In known multidomain ACCases, the position corresponding to the Ile/Asn-2,041 residue in A. myosuroides is occupied by an Ile or a Val residue. In Lolium rigidum (Gaud.), we found Ile-Asn and Ile-Val substitutions. The Ile-Val change did not confer resistance to the APP clodinafop, whereas the Ile-Asn change did. The position and the particular substitution at this position are of importance for sensitivity to APPs.