An international panel of the International Atherosclerosis Society has developed a new set of recommendations for management of dyslipidemia. The panel identifies non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as the major atherogenic lipoprotein. Primary and secondary prevention are considered separately. Optimal levels for atherogenic lipoproteins are derived for the two forms of prevention. For primary prevention, the recommendations emphasize lifestyle therapies to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins; drug therapy is reserved for higher risk subjects. Risk assessment is based on estimation of lifetime risk according to differences in baseline population risk in different nations or regions. Secondary prevention emphasizes use of cholesterol-lowering drugs to attain optimal levels of atherogenic lipoproteins.