An evaluation of empagliflozin and it’s applicability to hypertension as a therapeutic option

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Abstract

Introduction: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors such as Empagliflozin are novel antihyperglycemic drugs approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition to its glucose-lowering effects, Empagliflozin promotes weight loss, blood pressure reduction, and other beneficial metabolic benefits. Areas covered: This review outlines the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of Empagliflozin and discusses its role in diabetes-associated hypertension. Expert opinion: Empagliflozin was the first in class to not only demonstrate safety of SGLT2 inhibition but also cardio- and reno-protective effects in an adequately powered cardiovascular outcome trial. The EMPA-REG study showed significant reductions in mortality from cardiovascular causes, hospitalization for heart failure, and progression of diabetic kidney disease. These benefits cannot be attributed to glycemic control alone, suggesting the involvement of other SGLT2 inhibition-mediated mechanisms. Recent data suggests the potential utility of SGLT2 inhibition in other conditions including type 1 diabetes (T1D) and non-diabetic heart failure patients with clinical trials currently being conducted. In concert with ongoing pre-clinical investigations to unravel the mechanisms contributing to cardiorenal protection, the full therapeutic potential of SGLT2 inhibition will become apparent over the next few years and promises to be one of the major success stories in clinical medicine. Abbreviations: T1D: type 1 diabetes; T2D: type 2 diabetes; SGLT2: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; CVD: cardiovascular disease; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; SNS: sympathetic nervous system; BP: blood pressure; CV: cardiovascular; ZDF: Zucker diabetic fatty; CKD: chronic kidney disease; FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Original languageEnglish
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Apr 2020

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