An anatomical pathogenesis of lower urinary tract definitions from the 2002 ICS report symptoms, conditions, syndromes, urodynamics

Peter Petros, Jörgen Quaghebeur, Jean Jacques Wyndaele

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To present an anatomical pathogenesis parallel with the 2002 International Continence Society Lower Urinary Tract (LUTS) definitions standardization Report 2002. Methods: Each LUTS section is discussed using the same numbers as the Report. Results: Normal function Bladder control is binary, with two reflexes alternating, either closure (dominant) or open (micturition), with the same cortical and peripheral components: three directional muscle forces contracting against pubourethral (PUL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments for closure, two against uterosacral ligaments for micturition. Dysfunction OAB symptoms reflect a prematurely activated micturition; PUL/USL weakness prevents muscle forces from controlling afferent urothelial emptying signals. Stress urinary incontinence is a consequence of weak PULs allowing posterior muscle forces to open the urethra during effort. Lax USLs weaken contractile force of the posterior urethral opening vectors, so detrusor has to contract against an unopened urethra. This is experienced as “obstructive micturition.”. Conclusions: Anatomical analysis indicates the ICS definitions are fundamentally sound, except for “OAB” which implies detrusor causation. Minor changes, OAB to “overactivated” bladder allow causation outside of bladder. This construct supports OAB and its component symptoms as a syndrome, as intuited by the Committee, (albeit as a prematurely activated micturition), retains the acronym, explains OAB cure by ligament repair, and incontinence pathogenesis from two post-2002 syndromes which need an addition to the definitions, Posterior Fornix Syndrome (of which OAB is a component) and Tethered Vagina Syndrome, which is the basis for skin-grafting cure of the 30%–50% of women who continue leaking urine massively after successful obstetric fistula closure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)740-755
Number of pages16
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


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