The purpose of this case-control study was to identify antenatal and perinatal risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Aboriginal infants in Western Australia (WA). Cases were all Aboriginal infants born in WA from 1980 to 1990 inclusive and classified as dying from SIDS in WA. Controls consisted of a matched group and a random group both selected from liveborn Aboriginal infants born from 1980 to 1990, Multivariate modelling showed that SIDS in Aboriginal infants was strongly related to young maternal age (<20 years, odds ratio (OR) = 2.89), high parity (parity > 3, OR = 4.40) acid being small-for-gestational age (OR = 3.36) but was not associated with single marital status (OR = 0.95) or male sex (OR = 0.97). Although the study was based on routinely collected data, results do highlight some important groups for SIDS prevention. To gain further knowledge in terms of SIDS in Aboriginal infants, there is an urgent need to collect information concerning infant care practices in the Aboriginal community.