Osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are common chronic degenerative disorders which are strongly associated with advanced age. We have previously demonstrated that amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), one of the pathological hallmarks of AD, accumulated abnormally in osteoporotic bone specimens in addition to having an activation effect on osteoclast (Bone 2014,61: 164-75). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of NF-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylates, and calcium oscillation signaling pathways by receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role in osteoclast activation. Targeting this signaling to modulate osteoclast function has been a promising strategy for osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aβ on RANKL-induced osteoclast signaling pathways in vitro. In mouse bone marrow monocytes (BMMs), Aβ exerted no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis but promoted osteoclastic bone resorption. In molecular levels, Aβ enhanced NF-κB activity and IκB-α degradation, activated ERK phosphorylation and stimulated calcium oscillation, thus leading to upregulation of NFAT-c1 expression during osteoclast activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Aβ enhances RANKL-induced osteoclast activation through IκB-α degradation, ERK phosphorylation, and calcium oscillation signaling pathways and that Aβ may be a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related disease such as osteoporosis.