Altered TDP-43 Structure and Function: Key Insights into Aberrant RNA, Mitochondrial, and Cellular and Systemic Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Leanne Jiang, Shyuan T. Ngo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neuromuscular disorder with no cure available and limited treatment options. ALS is a highly heterogeneous disease, whereby patients present with vastly different phenotypes. Despite this heterogeneity, over 97% of patients will exhibit pathological TAR-DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 is a ubiquitously expressed RNA binding protein with the capacity to bind over 6000 RNA and DNA targets-particularly those involved in RNA, mitochondrial, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the unique structure and function of TDP-43 and its role in affecting the aforementioned metabolic processes in ALS. Considering evidence published specifically in TDP-43-relevant in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo models we posit that TDP-43 acts in a positive feedback loop with mRNA transcription/translation, stress granules, cytoplasmic aggregates, and mitochondrial proteins causing a relentless cycle of disease-like pathology eventuating in neuronal toxicity. Given its undeniable presence in ALS pathology, TDP-43 presents as a promising target for mechanistic disease modelling and future therapeutic investigations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number709
Number of pages29
JournalMetabolites
Volume12
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

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