Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a crucial role in promoting plant growth, enhancing plant stress resistance, and sustaining a healthy ecosystem. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal status of teak plantations. Here, we evaluated how the AM fungal communities of rhizosphere soils and roots respond to different stand ages of teak: 22, 35, 45, and 55-year-old from the adjacent native grassland (CK). A high-throughput sequencing method was used to compare the differences in soil and root AM fungal community structures. In combination with soil parameters, mechanisms driving the AM fungal community were revealed by redundancy analysis and the Mantel test. Additionally, spore density and colonization rates were analyzed. With increasing stand age, the AM fungal colonization rates and spore density increased linearly. Catalase activity and ammonium nitrogen content also increased, and soil organic carbon, total phosphorous, acid phosphatase activity, available potassium, and available phosphorus first increased and then decreased. Stand age significantly changed the structure of the AM fungal community but had no significant impact on the diversity of the AM fungal community. However, the diversity of the AM fungal community in soils was statistically higher than that in the roots. In total, nine and seven AM fungal genera were detected in the soil and root samples, respectively. The majority of sequences in soils and roots belonged to Glomus. Age-induced changes in soil properties could largely explain the alterations in the structure of the AM fungal community along a chronosequence, which included total potassium, carbon-nitrogen ratio, ammonium nitrogen, catalase, and acid phosphatase levels in soils and catalase, acid phosphatase, pH, and total potassium levels in roots. Soil nutrient availability and enzyme activity were the main driving factors regulating the shift in the AM fungal community structure along a chronosequence of the teak plantations.