As investigations into the innate immune responses that lead to allergic sensitization become better defined, there is a need to determine how allergens could interact with pattern recognition receptors that bind non-proteinaceous moieties. Many important allergens are not covalently bound to lipid or carbohydrate, but have structures belonging to lipid, glycan and glycolipid-binding families. These include ML-domain proteins, lipopolysaccharide-binding/cell permeability-increasing proteins, von Ebner gland lipocalins, salivary lipocalins/major urinary proteins, plant pathogenesis-related proteins PR-5 and -10, uteroglobins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, large lipid transfer proteins and proteins with chitin and other carbohydrate-binding modules. The binding expected is overviewed with regard to importance of the allergens and their ability to elicit responses proposed from experimental models. The evidence compiled showing that allergens from the same source sensitize for different types of adaptive immune responses supports the concept that individual allergens within these sources have their own distinctive interactions with innate immunity.