Alexidine dihydrochloride attenuates osteoclast formation and bone resorption and protects against LPS-induced osteolysis

Xiang Zhu, Junjie Gao, Pei Ying Ng, A Qin, Jay Steer, Nathan Pavlos, Minghao Zheng, Y. Dong, Tak Sum Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aseptic loosening and periprosthetic infection leading to inflammatory osteolysis is a major complication associated with total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The liberation of bacterial products and/or implant-derived wear particles activates immune cells that produce pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines that enhance osteoclast recruitment and activity, leading to bone destruction and osteolysis. Therefore, agents that prevent the inflammatory response and/or attenuate excessive osteoclast (OC) formation and bone resorption offer therapeutic potential by prolonging the life of TJA implants. Alexidine dihydrochloride (AD) is a bisbiguanide compound commonly used as an oral disinfectant and in contact lens solutions. It possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties; however, its effects on OC biology are poorly described. Here, we demonstrate that AD inhibits OC formation and bone resorption in vitro and exert prophylatic protection against LPS-induced osteolysis in vivo. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that AD suppressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, p38, and JNK), leading to the downregulation of NFATc1. Furthermore, AD disrupted F-actin ring formation and attenuated the ability of mature OC to resorb bone. Collectively, our findings suggest that AD may be a promising prophylactic anti-osteoclastic/resorptive agent for the treatment of osteolytic diseases caused by excessive OC formation and function. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)560-572
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Bone & Mineral Research
Volume31
Issue number3
Early online date6 Jan 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2016

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Osteolysis
Osteoclasts
Bone Resorption
Arthroplasty
Contact Lens Solutions
Joints
Personnel Selection
Bone and Bones
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
alexidine
Actins
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Down-Regulation
Cytokines
Ligands
Therapeutics
Infection

Cite this

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title = "Alexidine dihydrochloride attenuates osteoclast formation and bone resorption and protects against LPS-induced osteolysis",
abstract = "Aseptic loosening and periprosthetic infection leading to inflammatory osteolysis is a major complication associated with total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The liberation of bacterial products and/or implant-derived wear particles activates immune cells that produce pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines that enhance osteoclast recruitment and activity, leading to bone destruction and osteolysis. Therefore, agents that prevent the inflammatory response and/or attenuate excessive osteoclast (OC) formation and bone resorption offer therapeutic potential by prolonging the life of TJA implants. Alexidine dihydrochloride (AD) is a bisbiguanide compound commonly used as an oral disinfectant and in contact lens solutions. It possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties; however, its effects on OC biology are poorly described. Here, we demonstrate that AD inhibits OC formation and bone resorption in vitro and exert prophylatic protection against LPS-induced osteolysis in vivo. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that AD suppressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, p38, and JNK), leading to the downregulation of NFATc1. Furthermore, AD disrupted F-actin ring formation and attenuated the ability of mature OC to resorb bone. Collectively, our findings suggest that AD may be a promising prophylactic anti-osteoclastic/resorptive agent for the treatment of osteolytic diseases caused by excessive OC formation and function. {\circledC} 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.",
author = "Xiang Zhu and Junjie Gao and Ng, {Pei Ying} and A Qin and Jay Steer and Nathan Pavlos and Minghao Zheng and Y. Dong and Cheng, {Tak Sum}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Alexidine dihydrochloride attenuates osteoclast formation and bone resorption and protects against LPS-induced osteolysis

AU - Zhu, Xiang

AU - Gao, Junjie

AU - Ng, Pei Ying

AU - Qin, A

AU - Steer, Jay

AU - Pavlos, Nathan

AU - Zheng, Minghao

AU - Dong, Y.

AU - Cheng, Tak Sum

PY - 2016/3/16

Y1 - 2016/3/16

N2 - Aseptic loosening and periprosthetic infection leading to inflammatory osteolysis is a major complication associated with total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The liberation of bacterial products and/or implant-derived wear particles activates immune cells that produce pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines that enhance osteoclast recruitment and activity, leading to bone destruction and osteolysis. Therefore, agents that prevent the inflammatory response and/or attenuate excessive osteoclast (OC) formation and bone resorption offer therapeutic potential by prolonging the life of TJA implants. Alexidine dihydrochloride (AD) is a bisbiguanide compound commonly used as an oral disinfectant and in contact lens solutions. It possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties; however, its effects on OC biology are poorly described. Here, we demonstrate that AD inhibits OC formation and bone resorption in vitro and exert prophylatic protection against LPS-induced osteolysis in vivo. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that AD suppressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, p38, and JNK), leading to the downregulation of NFATc1. Furthermore, AD disrupted F-actin ring formation and attenuated the ability of mature OC to resorb bone. Collectively, our findings suggest that AD may be a promising prophylactic anti-osteoclastic/resorptive agent for the treatment of osteolytic diseases caused by excessive OC formation and function. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

AB - Aseptic loosening and periprosthetic infection leading to inflammatory osteolysis is a major complication associated with total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The liberation of bacterial products and/or implant-derived wear particles activates immune cells that produce pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines that enhance osteoclast recruitment and activity, leading to bone destruction and osteolysis. Therefore, agents that prevent the inflammatory response and/or attenuate excessive osteoclast (OC) formation and bone resorption offer therapeutic potential by prolonging the life of TJA implants. Alexidine dihydrochloride (AD) is a bisbiguanide compound commonly used as an oral disinfectant and in contact lens solutions. It possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties; however, its effects on OC biology are poorly described. Here, we demonstrate that AD inhibits OC formation and bone resorption in vitro and exert prophylatic protection against LPS-induced osteolysis in vivo. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that AD suppressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, p38, and JNK), leading to the downregulation of NFATc1. Furthermore, AD disrupted F-actin ring formation and attenuated the ability of mature OC to resorb bone. Collectively, our findings suggest that AD may be a promising prophylactic anti-osteoclastic/resorptive agent for the treatment of osteolytic diseases caused by excessive OC formation and function. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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DO - 10.1002/jbmr.2710

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