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The accumulation of toxic and essential nutrient elements in wheat grain influences wheat yield, grain nutritional quality, and human health. Here, we assessed the potential for breeding wheat cultivars to combine high yield with low cadmium and high iron and/or zinc concentrations in grains, and we screened appropriate cultivars. A pot experiment was conducted to explore differences in grain cadmium, iron, and zinc concentrations among 68 wheat cultivars, as well as their relationships with other nutrient elements and agronomic characters. The results showed 2.04-, 1.71-, and 1.64-fold differences in grain cadmium, iron, and zinc concentrations, respectively, among the 68 cultivars. Grain cadmium concentration was positively correlated with grain zinc, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and manganese concentrations. Grain copper concentration was positively correlated with grain zinc and iron concentrations, but not with grain cadmium concentration. Therefore, copper has a potential role in regulating grain iron and zinc accumulation without influencing cadmium concentration in wheat grain. There were no significant relationships between grain cadmium concentration and four important wheat agronomic characters (i.e., grain yield, straw yield, thousand kernel weight, and plant height), indicating that the breeding of low-cadmium-accumulating cultivars with dwarfism and high yield characteristics is possible. On cluster analysis, four cultivars (Ningmai11, Xumai35, Baomai6, and Aikang58) exhibited low-cadmium and high-yield characteristics. Among them, Aikang58 contained moderate iron and zinc concentrations, while Ningmai11 had relatively high iron but low zinc concentrations in the grain. These results imply that it is feasible to breed high-yield dwarf wheat with low cadmium and moderate iron and zinc concentrations in the grain.