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Globally, agricultural land-use negatively affects soil biota that contribute to ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling, yet arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are promoted as essential components of agroecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi include Glomeromycotinian AMF (G-AMF) and the arbuscule-producing fine root endophytes, recently re-classified into the Endogonales order within Mucoromycotina. The correct classification of Mucoromycotinian AMF (M-AMF) and the availability of new molecular tools can guide research to better the understanding of their diversity and ecology. To investigate the impact on G-AMF and M-AMF of agricultural land-use at a continental scale, we sampled DNA from paired farm and native sites across 10 Australian biomes. Glomeromycotinian AMF were present in both native and farm sites in all biomes. Putative M-AMF were favoured by farm sites, rare or absent in native sites, and almost entirely absent in tropical biomes. Temperature, rainfall, and soil pH were strong drivers of richness and community composition of both groups, and plant richness was an important mediator. Both fungal groups occupy different, but overlapping, ecological niches, with M-AMF thriving in temperate agricultural landscapes. Our findings invite exploration of the origin and spread of M-AMF and continued efforts to resolve the phylogeny of this newly reclassified group of AMF.
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