Major challenges still exist in the accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in children. Algorithms based on clinical and radiological features remain in widespread use despite poor performance. Newer molecular diagnostics allow for rapid identification of TB and detection of drug-resistance in a subset of children, but lack sensitivity. Molecular testing of multiple specimens, including non-traditional specimen types, such as nasopharyngeal aspirates and stool and urine, may improve sensitivity, but the optimal combination of specimens requires further research. Novel tests under development or evaluation include a urine lipoarabinomannan test with improved sensitivity and a range of biomarkers measured from stimulated or unstimulated peripheral blood.