Background/AimsWe sought to determine factors associated with the overall survival from relapse (OSR) of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) after allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and the effect of first salvage therapy and subsequent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on OSR.
MethodsData on 386 patients from nine Australian centres with relapsed AML post-alloHSCT were collected retrospectively. OSR was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using the log-rank test and proportional hazards modelling, respectively and a prognostic index for OSR was derived from multivariate modelling.
ResultsOn multivariate analysis, relapse within 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) 2.4, P
ConclusionPatients with AML who relapse beyond 6 months from alloHSCT without prior grade 3-4 acute GVHD have a better outcome from salvage therapy. Salvage treatments employing DCT as the initial treatment of AML relapse confer a survival advantage over CT.