Acute carbohydrate ingestion does not influence the post-exercise iron-regulatory response in elite keto-adapted race walkers

Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Marijke Welvaert, Nicolin Tee, Jill J. Leckey, Avish P. Sharma, Megan L.R. Ross, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, Louise M. Burke

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Abstract

Objectives: Adhering to a low carbohydrate (CHO)high fat (LCHF)diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes. This investigation examined the re-introduction of CHO prior to, and during exercise on the iron-regulatory response to exercise in a homogenous (in regard to serum ferritin concentration)group of athletes adapted to a LCHF diet. Design: Parallel groups design. Methods: Three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n = 14)or LCHF diet (n = 9). A standardised 19–25 km race walk was performed while athletes were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second test was performed three days later, where all athletes were placed on a high CHO diet (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and measured for interleukin-6 (IL-6)and hepcidin-25. Results: The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p < 0.001)during both the Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; 95% CI: 5.6–23.0, CHO: 8.0-fold increase; 5.1–11.1)and CHO Restoration trials (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase; 10.9–28.9, CHO: 6.3-fold increase; 3.9–9.5); outcomes were not different between trials (p = 0.84). Hepcidin-25 concentrations increased 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p = 0.46)or diets (p = 0.84). Conclusions: The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet was not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 response to exercise, post-exercise hepcidin levels were similar between diets and trials, indicating CHO availability has minimal influence on post-exercise iron metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)635-640
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Volume22
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019

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Walkers
Iron
Eating
Carbohydrates
Exercise
Diet
Athletes
Hepcidins
Interleukin-6
High Fat Diet
Ferritins

Cite this

McKay, Alannah K.A. ; Peeling, Peter ; Pyne, David B. ; Welvaert, Marijke ; Tee, Nicolin ; Leckey, Jill J. ; Sharma, Avish P. ; Ross, Megan L.R. ; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A. ; van Swelm, Rachel P.L. ; Laarakkers, Coby M. ; Burke, Louise M. / Acute carbohydrate ingestion does not influence the post-exercise iron-regulatory response in elite keto-adapted race walkers. In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2019 ; Vol. 22, No. 6. pp. 635-640.
@article{6dce981ed93b4cf18fc47d18b20f584e,
title = "Acute carbohydrate ingestion does not influence the post-exercise iron-regulatory response in elite keto-adapted race walkers",
abstract = "Objectives: Adhering to a low carbohydrate (CHO)high fat (LCHF)diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes. This investigation examined the re-introduction of CHO prior to, and during exercise on the iron-regulatory response to exercise in a homogenous (in regard to serum ferritin concentration)group of athletes adapted to a LCHF diet. Design: Parallel groups design. Methods: Three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n = 14)or LCHF diet (n = 9). A standardised 19–25 km race walk was performed while athletes were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second test was performed three days later, where all athletes were placed on a high CHO diet (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and measured for interleukin-6 (IL-6)and hepcidin-25. Results: The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p < 0.001)during both the Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; 95{\%} CI: 5.6–23.0, CHO: 8.0-fold increase; 5.1–11.1)and CHO Restoration trials (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase; 10.9–28.9, CHO: 6.3-fold increase; 3.9–9.5); outcomes were not different between trials (p = 0.84). Hepcidin-25 concentrations increased 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p = 0.46)or diets (p = 0.84). Conclusions: The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet was not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 response to exercise, post-exercise hepcidin levels were similar between diets and trials, indicating CHO availability has minimal influence on post-exercise iron metabolism.",
keywords = "Ferritin, Hepcidin, Interleukin-6, Iron metabolism, LCHF diet, Race-walkers",
author = "McKay, {Alannah K.A.} and Peter Peeling and Pyne, {David B.} and Marijke Welvaert and Nicolin Tee and Leckey, {Jill J.} and Sharma, {Avish P.} and Ross, {Megan L.R.} and Garvican-Lewis, {Laura A.} and {van Swelm}, {Rachel P.L.} and Laarakkers, {Coby M.} and Burke, {Louise M.}",
year = "2019",
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McKay, AKA, Peeling, P, Pyne, DB, Welvaert, M, Tee, N, Leckey, JJ, Sharma, AP, Ross, MLR, Garvican-Lewis, LA, van Swelm, RPL, Laarakkers, CM & Burke, LM 2019, 'Acute carbohydrate ingestion does not influence the post-exercise iron-regulatory response in elite keto-adapted race walkers' Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 635-640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.015

Acute carbohydrate ingestion does not influence the post-exercise iron-regulatory response in elite keto-adapted race walkers. / McKay, Alannah K.A.; Peeling, Peter; Pyne, David B.; Welvaert, Marijke; Tee, Nicolin; Leckey, Jill J.; Sharma, Avish P.; Ross, Megan L.R.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; van Swelm, Rachel P.L.; Laarakkers, Coby M.; Burke, Louise M.

In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Vol. 22, No. 6, 01.06.2019, p. 635-640.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute carbohydrate ingestion does not influence the post-exercise iron-regulatory response in elite keto-adapted race walkers

AU - McKay, Alannah K.A.

AU - Peeling, Peter

AU - Pyne, David B.

AU - Welvaert, Marijke

AU - Tee, Nicolin

AU - Leckey, Jill J.

AU - Sharma, Avish P.

AU - Ross, Megan L.R.

AU - Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.

AU - van Swelm, Rachel P.L.

AU - Laarakkers, Coby M.

AU - Burke, Louise M.

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - Objectives: Adhering to a low carbohydrate (CHO)high fat (LCHF)diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes. This investigation examined the re-introduction of CHO prior to, and during exercise on the iron-regulatory response to exercise in a homogenous (in regard to serum ferritin concentration)group of athletes adapted to a LCHF diet. Design: Parallel groups design. Methods: Three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n = 14)or LCHF diet (n = 9). A standardised 19–25 km race walk was performed while athletes were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second test was performed three days later, where all athletes were placed on a high CHO diet (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and measured for interleukin-6 (IL-6)and hepcidin-25. Results: The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p < 0.001)during both the Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; 95% CI: 5.6–23.0, CHO: 8.0-fold increase; 5.1–11.1)and CHO Restoration trials (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase; 10.9–28.9, CHO: 6.3-fold increase; 3.9–9.5); outcomes were not different between trials (p = 0.84). Hepcidin-25 concentrations increased 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p = 0.46)or diets (p = 0.84). Conclusions: The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet was not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 response to exercise, post-exercise hepcidin levels were similar between diets and trials, indicating CHO availability has minimal influence on post-exercise iron metabolism.

AB - Objectives: Adhering to a low carbohydrate (CHO)high fat (LCHF)diet can alter markers of iron metabolism in endurance athletes. This investigation examined the re-introduction of CHO prior to, and during exercise on the iron-regulatory response to exercise in a homogenous (in regard to serum ferritin concentration)group of athletes adapted to a LCHF diet. Design: Parallel groups design. Methods: Three weeks prior to the exercise trials, twenty-three elite race walkers adhered to either a CHO-rich (n = 14)or LCHF diet (n = 9). A standardised 19–25 km race walk was performed while athletes were still adhering to their allocated dietary intervention (Adapt). A second test was performed three days later, where all athletes were placed on a high CHO diet (CHO Restoration). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise and measured for interleukin-6 (IL-6)and hepcidin-25. Results: The post-exercise IL-6 increase was greater in LCHF (p < 0.001)during both the Adapt (LCHF: 13.1-fold increase; 95% CI: 5.6–23.0, CHO: 8.0-fold increase; 5.1–11.1)and CHO Restoration trials (LCHF: 18.5-fold increase; 10.9–28.9, CHO: 6.3-fold increase; 3.9–9.5); outcomes were not different between trials (p = 0.84). Hepcidin-25 concentrations increased 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.001), however, they did not differ between trials (p = 0.46)or diets (p = 0.84). Conclusions: The elevated IL-6 response in athletes adapted to a LCHF diet was not attenuated by an acute increase in exogenous CHO availability. Despite diet-induced differences in IL-6 response to exercise, post-exercise hepcidin levels were similar between diets and trials, indicating CHO availability has minimal influence on post-exercise iron metabolism.

KW - Ferritin

KW - Hepcidin

KW - Interleukin-6

KW - Iron metabolism

KW - LCHF diet

KW - Race-walkers

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.015

DO - 10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.015

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 635

EP - 640

JO - Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

JF - Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

SN - 1440-2440

IS - 6

ER -