Male calling and searching tactics are described for a duetting Australian bushcricket, Caedicia sp. 12 ( Phaneropterinae; Tettigoniidae; Orthoptera). The repertoire of Caedicia sp. 12 consists of the calling song and, by nonduetting males, a series of calling tactics that include short-click calling, disruptive over-singing and a call mimicking the entire duet. Nonduetting males respond to the production of a duet by another male and a female with short-click calls that mimic the female call at the conclusion of a duet. By manipulating the male's mating history, it is found that this form of calling behaviour is more likely to occur within the male's 6-day postmating refractory period; the low cost tactic allows males to re-mate during spermatophore replenishment. Males also produce disruptive calls in response to a duet, where the male may over-sing the duetting male's signal or produce a call that appears to mimic the entire duet; the male produces a calling song followed by a short signal that has the same latency as the female's reply within a duet. Males also over-sing crucial elements of the duetting male's song that are normally critical for the female's conspecific recognition. There is no evidence that females search for the duetting male partner, but males unable to enter a duet will search for the call of a responding female. Searching by males is more common when these males are producing disruptive calls. Alternative male calling tactics are discussed as a set of conditional strategies for securing unmated females.
Bailey, W., Macleay, C., & Gordon, T. (2006). Acoustic mimicry and disruptive alternative calling tactics in an Australian bushcricket (Caedicia; Phaneropterinae; Tettigoniidae: Orthoptera): does mating influence male calling tactic? Physiological Entomology, 31(3), 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3032.2006.00501.x