Accelerated weightbearing rehabilitation after matrix-induced autologus chondrocyte implantation in the tibiofemoral joint

Peter Edwards, Tim Ackland, Jay Ebert

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    22 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee, although best patient outcomes appear limited by a lack of evidence-based knowledge on how to progressively increase postoperative weightbearing (WB) and rehabilitation exercises. Hypothesis: To determine the safety and efficacy of an accelerated WB regimen after MACI in the tibiofemoral joint. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: Clinical and radiological assessments were performed in 28 knees at 12 months after MACI to the medial or lateral femoral condyle. Both rehabilitation interventions sought to protect the implant for an initial period and then incrementally increase load bearing. Under the “accelerated” (AR) protocol, patients reached full WB at 6 weeks after surgery compared with 8 weeks for what was considered to be the current “best practice” (CR) WB regimen based on previous research. Assessments included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), visual analog scale, 6-minute walk test, and active knee range of motion (ROM). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to describe the quality and quantity of repair tissue via the assessment of pertinent parameters of graft repair as well as an MRI composite score. Results: Patients in both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < .05) in all clinical measures over the preoperative and postoperative timeline from before surgery to 12 months after surgery. The AR group reported significantly better (P < .05) SF-36 physical component scores at 8 weeks and significantly greater (P < .05) KOOS quality of life scores at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Although no differences (P > .05) were observed between the 2 groups for active knee ROM, the AR group did achieve full active knee extension as early as 4 weeks compared with the CR group at 12 weeks. There was no difference (P > .05) in graft quality as assessed by MRI (MOCART composite score: AR, 3.34; CR, 3.04), with no patients suffering any adverse effects from the implant up to 12 months, regardless of the rehabilitation protocol employed. Conclusion: The AR approach that reduced the length of time spent ambulating on crutches resulted in improved general physical function and quality of life and an earlier attainment of full active knee extension when compared with the CR approach. There were no graft complications ascertained through MRI. This regimen appears safe and may potentially speed up the recovery of normal gait function. A larger patient cohort and follow-up are required to observe long-term graft outcomes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2314-2324
    JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
    Volume41
    Issue number10
    Early online date23 Jul 2013
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013

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    Weight-Bearing
    Chondrocytes
    Knee
    Rehabilitation
    Joints
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Transplants
    Articular Range of Motion
    Crutches
    Exercise Therapy
    Knee Injuries
    Knee Osteoarthritis
    Thigh
    Health Surveys
    Visual Analog Scale
    Gait
    Practice Guidelines
    Cartilage
    Randomized Controlled Trials
    Quality of Life

    Cite this

    @article{a441e1b9ea764f2d8e53a3261f775340,
    title = "Accelerated weightbearing rehabilitation after matrix-induced autologus chondrocyte implantation in the tibiofemoral joint",
    abstract = "Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee, although best patient outcomes appear limited by a lack of evidence-based knowledge on how to progressively increase postoperative weightbearing (WB) and rehabilitation exercises. Hypothesis: To determine the safety and efficacy of an accelerated WB regimen after MACI in the tibiofemoral joint. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: Clinical and radiological assessments were performed in 28 knees at 12 months after MACI to the medial or lateral femoral condyle. Both rehabilitation interventions sought to protect the implant for an initial period and then incrementally increase load bearing. Under the “accelerated” (AR) protocol, patients reached full WB at 6 weeks after surgery compared with 8 weeks for what was considered to be the current “best practice” (CR) WB regimen based on previous research. Assessments included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), visual analog scale, 6-minute walk test, and active knee range of motion (ROM). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to describe the quality and quantity of repair tissue via the assessment of pertinent parameters of graft repair as well as an MRI composite score. Results: Patients in both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < .05) in all clinical measures over the preoperative and postoperative timeline from before surgery to 12 months after surgery. The AR group reported significantly better (P < .05) SF-36 physical component scores at 8 weeks and significantly greater (P < .05) KOOS quality of life scores at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Although no differences (P > .05) were observed between the 2 groups for active knee ROM, the AR group did achieve full active knee extension as early as 4 weeks compared with the CR group at 12 weeks. There was no difference (P > .05) in graft quality as assessed by MRI (MOCART composite score: AR, 3.34; CR, 3.04), with no patients suffering any adverse effects from the implant up to 12 months, regardless of the rehabilitation protocol employed. Conclusion: The AR approach that reduced the length of time spent ambulating on crutches resulted in improved general physical function and quality of life and an earlier attainment of full active knee extension when compared with the CR approach. There were no graft complications ascertained through MRI. This regimen appears safe and may potentially speed up the recovery of normal gait function. A larger patient cohort and follow-up are required to observe long-term graft outcomes.",
    author = "Peter Edwards and Tim Ackland and Jay Ebert",
    year = "2013",
    month = "10",
    doi = "10.1177/0363546513495637",
    language = "English",
    volume = "41",
    pages = "2314--2324",
    journal = "The American Journal of Sports Medicine",
    issn = "0363-5465",
    publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
    number = "10",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Accelerated weightbearing rehabilitation after matrix-induced autologus chondrocyte implantation in the tibiofemoral joint

    AU - Edwards, Peter

    AU - Ackland, Tim

    AU - Ebert, Jay

    PY - 2013/10

    Y1 - 2013/10

    N2 - Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee, although best patient outcomes appear limited by a lack of evidence-based knowledge on how to progressively increase postoperative weightbearing (WB) and rehabilitation exercises. Hypothesis: To determine the safety and efficacy of an accelerated WB regimen after MACI in the tibiofemoral joint. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: Clinical and radiological assessments were performed in 28 knees at 12 months after MACI to the medial or lateral femoral condyle. Both rehabilitation interventions sought to protect the implant for an initial period and then incrementally increase load bearing. Under the “accelerated” (AR) protocol, patients reached full WB at 6 weeks after surgery compared with 8 weeks for what was considered to be the current “best practice” (CR) WB regimen based on previous research. Assessments included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), visual analog scale, 6-minute walk test, and active knee range of motion (ROM). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to describe the quality and quantity of repair tissue via the assessment of pertinent parameters of graft repair as well as an MRI composite score. Results: Patients in both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < .05) in all clinical measures over the preoperative and postoperative timeline from before surgery to 12 months after surgery. The AR group reported significantly better (P < .05) SF-36 physical component scores at 8 weeks and significantly greater (P < .05) KOOS quality of life scores at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Although no differences (P > .05) were observed between the 2 groups for active knee ROM, the AR group did achieve full active knee extension as early as 4 weeks compared with the CR group at 12 weeks. There was no difference (P > .05) in graft quality as assessed by MRI (MOCART composite score: AR, 3.34; CR, 3.04), with no patients suffering any adverse effects from the implant up to 12 months, regardless of the rehabilitation protocol employed. Conclusion: The AR approach that reduced the length of time spent ambulating on crutches resulted in improved general physical function and quality of life and an earlier attainment of full active knee extension when compared with the CR approach. There were no graft complications ascertained through MRI. This regimen appears safe and may potentially speed up the recovery of normal gait function. A larger patient cohort and follow-up are required to observe long-term graft outcomes.

    AB - Background: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has become an established technique for the repair of full-thickness chondral defects in the knee, although best patient outcomes appear limited by a lack of evidence-based knowledge on how to progressively increase postoperative weightbearing (WB) and rehabilitation exercises. Hypothesis: To determine the safety and efficacy of an accelerated WB regimen after MACI in the tibiofemoral joint. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: Clinical and radiological assessments were performed in 28 knees at 12 months after MACI to the medial or lateral femoral condyle. Both rehabilitation interventions sought to protect the implant for an initial period and then incrementally increase load bearing. Under the “accelerated” (AR) protocol, patients reached full WB at 6 weeks after surgery compared with 8 weeks for what was considered to be the current “best practice” (CR) WB regimen based on previous research. Assessments included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), visual analog scale, 6-minute walk test, and active knee range of motion (ROM). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to describe the quality and quantity of repair tissue via the assessment of pertinent parameters of graft repair as well as an MRI composite score. Results: Patients in both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < .05) in all clinical measures over the preoperative and postoperative timeline from before surgery to 12 months after surgery. The AR group reported significantly better (P < .05) SF-36 physical component scores at 8 weeks and significantly greater (P < .05) KOOS quality of life scores at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Although no differences (P > .05) were observed between the 2 groups for active knee ROM, the AR group did achieve full active knee extension as early as 4 weeks compared with the CR group at 12 weeks. There was no difference (P > .05) in graft quality as assessed by MRI (MOCART composite score: AR, 3.34; CR, 3.04), with no patients suffering any adverse effects from the implant up to 12 months, regardless of the rehabilitation protocol employed. Conclusion: The AR approach that reduced the length of time spent ambulating on crutches resulted in improved general physical function and quality of life and an earlier attainment of full active knee extension when compared with the CR approach. There were no graft complications ascertained through MRI. This regimen appears safe and may potentially speed up the recovery of normal gait function. A larger patient cohort and follow-up are required to observe long-term graft outcomes.

    U2 - 10.1177/0363546513495637

    DO - 10.1177/0363546513495637

    M3 - Article

    VL - 41

    SP - 2314

    EP - 2324

    JO - The American Journal of Sports Medicine

    JF - The American Journal of Sports Medicine

    SN - 0363-5465

    IS - 10

    ER -