BMPRIA and its high-affinity ligand BMP4 have recently been shown to be expressed in the β-cells of the pancreas. Here, we report the abnormalities of heterozygous mice for Bmpr1a in glucose metabolism during the course of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The heterozygous mice had increased blood glucose levels throughout the first 2.5 h after the administration of glucose. Analysis of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) indicates that insulin secretion in the heterozygous mice is compromised, and induction of secreted insulin by stimulation is substantially lower compared with the wild-type controls. No apparent abnormalities in pancreas, thyroid, and liver were seen upon histological examination. Real-time PCR results of selected genes showed an increase in the mRNA level of Ins1 and Ins2 in the heterozygous group. These results indicate that the glucose-sensing pathway in these heterozygous mice is altered because of the heterozygosity in Bmpr1a. Together, our data suggest that BMP signaling through BMPRIA plays an important role in glucose metabolism and possibly working through the GSIS pathway. genesis 47:385–391, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.