Learning management systems (LMSs) are very widely used in higher education. However, much of the research on LMSs has had a technology focus or has been limited to studies of adoption. In order to take advantage of the potential associated with LMSs, research that addresses the role of LMSs in learning success is needed. Task–technology fit is one factor that has been shown to influence both the use of information systems and their performance impacts. The study described in this paper used the technology-to-performance chain as a framework to address the question of how task–technology fit influences the performance impacts of LMSs. The results provide strong support for the importance of task–technology fit, which influenced perceived impact on learning both directly and indirectly via level of utilization. Whilst task–technology fit had a strong influence on perceived impact of the LMS on learning it only had a weak impact on outcomes in terms of student grades. Contrary to expectations, facilitating conditions and common social norms did not play a role in the performance impacts of LMSs. However, instructor norms had a significant effect on perceived impact on learning via LMS utilization.