A statistical shape model of soleus muscle morphology in spastic cerebral palsy

Salim G. Bin Ghouth, Sian A. Williams, Siobhan L. Reid, Thor F. Besier, Geoffrey G. Handsfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle in cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) cohorts using a statistical shape model and differentiated dominant features between the two cohorts. We generated shape models of CP and TD cohorts to characterize dominant features within each. We then generated a combined shape model of both CP and TD to assess deviations of the cohorts’ soleuses from a common mean shape, and statistically analysed differences between the cohorts. The shape models revealed similar principal components (PCs) with different variance between groups. The CP shape model yielded a distinct feature (superior–inferior shift of the broad central region) accounting for 8.1% of the model’s cumulative variance. The combined shape model presented two PCs where differences arose between CP and TD cohorts: size and aspect ratio of length–width–thickness. The distinct appearance characteristic in the CP model—described above—may implicate impaired muscle function in children with CP. Overall, children with CP had smaller muscles that also tended to be long, thin, and narrow. Shape modelling captures dominant morphological features of structures, which was used here to quantitatively describe CP muscles and further probe our understanding of the disease’s impact on the muscular system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7711
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


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