A review on MBE-grown HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb (211)B substrates

Z. K. Zhang, W. W. Pan, J. L. Liu, W. Lei

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

We review our recent efforts on developing HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower production cost and larger focal plane array format size. In order to achieve high-quality HgCdSe epilayers, ZnTe buffer layers are grown before growing HgCdSe, and the study of misfit strain in ZnTe buffer layers shows that the thickness of ZnTe buffer layer needs to be below 300 nm in order to minimize the generation of misfit dislocations. The cut-off wavelength/alloy composition of HgCdSe materials can be varied in a wide range by varying the ratio of Se/Cd beam equivalent pressure during the HgCdSe growth. Growth temperature presents significant impact on the material quality of HgCdSe, and lower growth temperature leads to higher material quality for HgCdSe. Typically, long-wave infrared HgCdSe (x = 0.18, cut-off wavelength of 10.4 mu m at 80 K) presents an electron mobility as high as 1.3 x 10(5) cm(2).V-1.s(-1), a background electron concentration as low as 1.6 x 10(16) cm(-3), and a minority carrier lifetime as long as 2.2 mu s. These values of electron mobility and minority carrier lifetime represent a significant improvement on previous studies of MBE-grown HgCdSe reported in the open literatures, and are comparable to those of counterpart HgCdTe materials grown on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. These results indicate that HgCdSe grown at the University of Western Australia, especially long-wave infrared can meet the basic material quality requirements for making high performance infrared detectors although further effort is required to control the background electron concentration to below 10(15) cm(-3). More importantly, even higher quality HgCdSe materials on GaSb are expected by further optimizing the growth conditions, using higher purity Se source material, and implementing post-growth thermal annealing and defect/impurity gettering/filtering. Our results demonstrate the great potential of HgCdSe infrared materials grown on GaSb substrates for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower cost and larger array format size.

Original languageEnglish
Article number018103
Number of pages10
JournalChinese Physics B
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Cite this

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title = "A review on MBE-grown HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb (211)B substrates",
abstract = "We review our recent efforts on developing HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower production cost and larger focal plane array format size. In order to achieve high-quality HgCdSe epilayers, ZnTe buffer layers are grown before growing HgCdSe, and the study of misfit strain in ZnTe buffer layers shows that the thickness of ZnTe buffer layer needs to be below 300 nm in order to minimize the generation of misfit dislocations. The cut-off wavelength/alloy composition of HgCdSe materials can be varied in a wide range by varying the ratio of Se/Cd beam equivalent pressure during the HgCdSe growth. Growth temperature presents significant impact on the material quality of HgCdSe, and lower growth temperature leads to higher material quality for HgCdSe. Typically, long-wave infrared HgCdSe (x = 0.18, cut-off wavelength of 10.4 mu m at 80 K) presents an electron mobility as high as 1.3 x 10(5) cm(2).V-1.s(-1), a background electron concentration as low as 1.6 x 10(16) cm(-3), and a minority carrier lifetime as long as 2.2 mu s. These values of electron mobility and minority carrier lifetime represent a significant improvement on previous studies of MBE-grown HgCdSe reported in the open literatures, and are comparable to those of counterpart HgCdTe materials grown on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. These results indicate that HgCdSe grown at the University of Western Australia, especially long-wave infrared can meet the basic material quality requirements for making high performance infrared detectors although further effort is required to control the background electron concentration to below 10(15) cm(-3). More importantly, even higher quality HgCdSe materials on GaSb are expected by further optimizing the growth conditions, using higher purity Se source material, and implementing post-growth thermal annealing and defect/impurity gettering/filtering. Our results demonstrate the great potential of HgCdSe infrared materials grown on GaSb substrates for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower cost and larger array format size.",
keywords = "infrared detector, HgCdSe, GaSb, molecular beam epitaxy, TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE, ALTERNATIVE SUBSTRATE, EPITAXIAL-GROWTH, RECOMBINATION, MECHANISMS",
author = "Zhang, {Z. K.} and Pan, {W. W.} and Liu, {J. L.} and W. Lei",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1088/1674-1056/28/1/018103",
language = "English",
volume = "28",
journal = "Chinese Physics",
issn = "1000-3290",
publisher = "IOP Publishing",
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A review on MBE-grown HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb (211)B substrates. / Zhang, Z. K.; Pan, W. W.; Liu, J. L.; Lei, W.

In: Chinese Physics B, Vol. 28, No. 1, 018103, 01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - A review on MBE-grown HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb (211)B substrates

AU - Zhang, Z. K.

AU - Pan, W. W.

AU - Liu, J. L.

AU - Lei, W.

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - We review our recent efforts on developing HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower production cost and larger focal plane array format size. In order to achieve high-quality HgCdSe epilayers, ZnTe buffer layers are grown before growing HgCdSe, and the study of misfit strain in ZnTe buffer layers shows that the thickness of ZnTe buffer layer needs to be below 300 nm in order to minimize the generation of misfit dislocations. The cut-off wavelength/alloy composition of HgCdSe materials can be varied in a wide range by varying the ratio of Se/Cd beam equivalent pressure during the HgCdSe growth. Growth temperature presents significant impact on the material quality of HgCdSe, and lower growth temperature leads to higher material quality for HgCdSe. Typically, long-wave infrared HgCdSe (x = 0.18, cut-off wavelength of 10.4 mu m at 80 K) presents an electron mobility as high as 1.3 x 10(5) cm(2).V-1.s(-1), a background electron concentration as low as 1.6 x 10(16) cm(-3), and a minority carrier lifetime as long as 2.2 mu s. These values of electron mobility and minority carrier lifetime represent a significant improvement on previous studies of MBE-grown HgCdSe reported in the open literatures, and are comparable to those of counterpart HgCdTe materials grown on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. These results indicate that HgCdSe grown at the University of Western Australia, especially long-wave infrared can meet the basic material quality requirements for making high performance infrared detectors although further effort is required to control the background electron concentration to below 10(15) cm(-3). More importantly, even higher quality HgCdSe materials on GaSb are expected by further optimizing the growth conditions, using higher purity Se source material, and implementing post-growth thermal annealing and defect/impurity gettering/filtering. Our results demonstrate the great potential of HgCdSe infrared materials grown on GaSb substrates for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower cost and larger array format size.

AB - We review our recent efforts on developing HgCdSe infrared materials on GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower production cost and larger focal plane array format size. In order to achieve high-quality HgCdSe epilayers, ZnTe buffer layers are grown before growing HgCdSe, and the study of misfit strain in ZnTe buffer layers shows that the thickness of ZnTe buffer layer needs to be below 300 nm in order to minimize the generation of misfit dislocations. The cut-off wavelength/alloy composition of HgCdSe materials can be varied in a wide range by varying the ratio of Se/Cd beam equivalent pressure during the HgCdSe growth. Growth temperature presents significant impact on the material quality of HgCdSe, and lower growth temperature leads to higher material quality for HgCdSe. Typically, long-wave infrared HgCdSe (x = 0.18, cut-off wavelength of 10.4 mu m at 80 K) presents an electron mobility as high as 1.3 x 10(5) cm(2).V-1.s(-1), a background electron concentration as low as 1.6 x 10(16) cm(-3), and a minority carrier lifetime as long as 2.2 mu s. These values of electron mobility and minority carrier lifetime represent a significant improvement on previous studies of MBE-grown HgCdSe reported in the open literatures, and are comparable to those of counterpart HgCdTe materials grown on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. These results indicate that HgCdSe grown at the University of Western Australia, especially long-wave infrared can meet the basic material quality requirements for making high performance infrared detectors although further effort is required to control the background electron concentration to below 10(15) cm(-3). More importantly, even higher quality HgCdSe materials on GaSb are expected by further optimizing the growth conditions, using higher purity Se source material, and implementing post-growth thermal annealing and defect/impurity gettering/filtering. Our results demonstrate the great potential of HgCdSe infrared materials grown on GaSb substrates for fabricating next generation infrared detectors with features of lower cost and larger array format size.

KW - infrared detector

KW - HgCdSe

KW - GaSb

KW - molecular beam epitaxy

KW - TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENCE

KW - ALTERNATIVE SUBSTRATE

KW - EPITAXIAL-GROWTH

KW - RECOMBINATION

KW - MECHANISMS

U2 - 10.1088/1674-1056/28/1/018103

DO - 10.1088/1674-1056/28/1/018103

M3 - Review article

VL - 28

JO - Chinese Physics

JF - Chinese Physics

SN - 1000-3290

IS - 1

M1 - 018103

ER -