Adolescents' involvement in violence is a public health concern worldwide, with male adolescents more likely than female adolescents to be involved. A review of the literature published between 1990 and 2011 was conducted to examine the risk and protective factors associated with gender and adolescents' involvement in violent behavior. While research suggests there is an association between gender and involvement in violent behavior, the strength of this association appears to be mediated by gender relationships with other risk and protective factors. Moreover, these relationships appear to vary amongst different communities. Prior to the development and implementation of violence prevention strategies, consideration should be given to collecting longitudinal data specific to the target community. These data would guide the development of effective prevention strategies to ensure they address local needs, influences, and associations between gender and other risk and protective factors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.