A Review of Clinical Guidelines on the Management of Iron Deficiency and Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Women with Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

Diana Mansour, Axel Hofmann, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Introduction: Up to one-third of women of reproductive age experience heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). HMB can give rise to iron deficiency (ID) and, in severe cases, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Aim: To review current guidelines for the management of HMB, with regards to screening for anemia, measuring iron levels, and treating ID/IDA with iron replacement therapy and non-iron-based treatments. Methods: The literature was searched for English-language guidelines relating to HMB published between 2010 and 2020, using the PubMed database, web searching, and retrieval of clinical guidelines from professional societies. Results: Overall, 55 guidelines mostly originating from North America and Europe were identified and screened. Twenty-two were included in this review, with the majority (16/22) focusing on guidance to screen women with HMB for anemia. The guidance varied with respect to identifying symptoms, the criteria for testing, and diagnostic hemoglobin levels for ID/IDA. There was inconsistency concerning screening for ID, with 11/22 guidelines providing no recommendations for measurement of iron levels and four contrasting guidelines explicitly advising against initial assessment of iron levels. In terms of treatment, 8/22 guidelines provided guidance on iron therapy, with oral iron administration generally recommended as first-line treatment for ID and/or IDA. Four guidelines recommended intravenous iron administration for severe anemia, in non-responders, or before surgery. Three guidelines provided hemoglobin thresholds for choosing between oral or intravenous iron treatment. Four guidelines discussed the use of transfusion for severe IDA. Conclusion: Many of the guidelines for managing HMB recognize the importance of treating anemia, but there is a lack of consensus in relation to screening for ID and use of iron therapy. Consequently, ID/IDA associated with HMB is likely to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. A consensus guidance, covering all aspects of screening and management of ID/IDA in women with HMB, is needed to optimize health outcomes in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvances in Therapy
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Nov 2020

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