A quantum federated learning framework for classical clients

Yanqi Song, Yusen Wu, Shengyao Wu, Dandan Li, Qiaoyan Wen, Sujuan Qin, Fei Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Quantum federated learning (QFL) enables collaborative training of a quantum machine learning (QML) model among multiple clients possessing quantum computing capabilities, without the need to share their respective local data. However, the limited availability of quantum computing resources poses a challenge for each client to acquire quantum computing capabilities. This raises a natural question: Can quantum computing capabilities be deployed on the server instead? In this paper, we propose a QFL framework specifically designed for classical clients, referred to as CC-QFL, in response to this question. In each iteration, the collaborative training of the QML model is assisted by the shadow tomography technique, eliminating the need for quantum computing capabilities of clients. Specifically, the server constructs a classical representation of the QML model and transmits it to the clients. The clients encode their local data onto observables and use this classical representation to calculate local gradients. These local gradients are then utilized to update the parameters of the QML model. We evaluate the effectiveness of our framework through extensive numerical simulations using handwritten digit images from the MNIST dataset. Our framework provides valuable insights into QFL, particularly in scenarios where quantum computing resources are scarce.

Original languageEnglish
Article number250311
Number of pages10
JournalScience China: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy
Issue number5
Early online date19 Mar 2024
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


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