The root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus thornei Sher & Allen, 1953 is a damaging parasite of many crop plants, including the grain legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Within cultivated chickpea, there are no known sources of strong resistance to P. thornei, but some cultivars have partial resistance. In the research reported here, the genetic basis for differences in P. thornei resistance was analysed using a population derived by accelerated single seed descent from a cross between a partially resistant cultivar, PBA HatTrick, and a very susceptible cultivar, Kyabra. A genetic linkage map was constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data. Two quantitative trait loci were mapped, one on the Ca4 chromosome and one on the Ca7 chromosome. The Ca7 locus had a greater and more consistent effect than the Ca4 locus. Marker assays designed for single nucleotide polymorphisms on Ca7 were applied to a panel of chickpea accessions. Some of these markers should be useful for marker-assisted selection in chickpea breeding. Haplotype analysis confirmed the Iranian landrace ICC14903 to be the source of the resistance allele in PBA HatTrick and indicated that other Australian cultivars inherited the same allele from other Iranian landraces. A candidate region was defined on the Ca7 pseudomolecule. Within that region, 69 genes have been predicted with high confidence. Among these, two have annotations related to biotic stress response. Three others have previously been reported to be expressed in roots of PBA HatTrick and Kyabra, including one that is more highly expressed in PBA HatTrick than in Kyabra.