A Prospective Clinical and Radiological Evaluation at 5 Years after Arthroscopic Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation

Jay R. Ebert, Michael Fallon, David J. Wood, Gregory C. Janes

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    Background: While midterm outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are encouraging, the procedure permits an arthroscopic approach that may reduce the morbidity of arthrotomy and permit accelerated rehabilitation. Hypothesis: A significant improvement in clinical and radiological outcomes after arthroscopic MACI will exist through to 5 years after surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the first 31 patients (15 male, 16 female) who underwent MACI via arthroscopic surgery to address symptomatic tibiofemoral chondral lesions. MACI was followed by a structured rehabilitation program in all patients. Clinical scores were administered preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months as well as 1, 2, and 5 years after surgery. These included the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm knee scale (LKS), Tegner activity scale (TAS), visual analog scale for pain, Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), active knee motion, and 6-minute walk test. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to assess peak knee extension and flexion strength and limb symmetry indices (LSIs) between the operated and nonoperated limbs. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperatively to evaluate graft repair as well as calculate the MRI composite score. Results: There was a significant improvement (P <.05) in all KOOS subscale scores, LKS and TAS scores, the SF-36 physical component score, pain frequency and severity, active knee flexion and extension, and 6-minute walk distance. Isokinetic knee extension strength significantly improved, and all knee extension and flexion LSIs were above 90% (apart from peak knee extension strength at 1 year). At 5 years, 93% of patients were satisfied with MACI to relieve their pain, 90% were satisfied with improving their ability to undertake daily activities, and 80% were satisfied with the improvement in participating in sport. Graft infill (P =.033) and the MRI composite score (P =.028) significantly improved over time, with 90% of patients demonstrating good to excellent tissue infill at 5 years. There were 2 graft failures at 5 years after surgery. Conclusion: The arthroscopically performed MACI technique demonstrated good clinical and radiological outcomes up to 5 years, with high levels of patient satisfaction.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)59-69
    Number of pages11
    JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
    Volume45
    Issue number1
    Early online date1 Sep 2016
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

    Fingerprint

    Chondrocytes
    Knee
    Knee Injuries
    Extremities
    Knee Osteoarthritis
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Transplants
    Rehabilitation
    Pain
    Aptitude
    Arthroscopy
    Pain Measurement
    Health Surveys
    Patient Satisfaction
    Cartilage
    Sports
    Lysholm Knee Score
    Morbidity

    Cite this

    @article{6cfbcb37e8b644deb9da6f9e5ea009ca,
    title = "A Prospective Clinical and Radiological Evaluation at 5 Years after Arthroscopic Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation",
    abstract = "Background: While midterm outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are encouraging, the procedure permits an arthroscopic approach that may reduce the morbidity of arthrotomy and permit accelerated rehabilitation. Hypothesis: A significant improvement in clinical and radiological outcomes after arthroscopic MACI will exist through to 5 years after surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the first 31 patients (15 male, 16 female) who underwent MACI via arthroscopic surgery to address symptomatic tibiofemoral chondral lesions. MACI was followed by a structured rehabilitation program in all patients. Clinical scores were administered preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months as well as 1, 2, and 5 years after surgery. These included the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm knee scale (LKS), Tegner activity scale (TAS), visual analog scale for pain, Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), active knee motion, and 6-minute walk test. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to assess peak knee extension and flexion strength and limb symmetry indices (LSIs) between the operated and nonoperated limbs. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperatively to evaluate graft repair as well as calculate the MRI composite score. Results: There was a significant improvement (P <.05) in all KOOS subscale scores, LKS and TAS scores, the SF-36 physical component score, pain frequency and severity, active knee flexion and extension, and 6-minute walk distance. Isokinetic knee extension strength significantly improved, and all knee extension and flexion LSIs were above 90{\%} (apart from peak knee extension strength at 1 year). At 5 years, 93{\%} of patients were satisfied with MACI to relieve their pain, 90{\%} were satisfied with improving their ability to undertake daily activities, and 80{\%} were satisfied with the improvement in participating in sport. Graft infill (P =.033) and the MRI composite score (P =.028) significantly improved over time, with 90{\%} of patients demonstrating good to excellent tissue infill at 5 years. There were 2 graft failures at 5 years after surgery. Conclusion: The arthroscopically performed MACI technique demonstrated good clinical and radiological outcomes up to 5 years, with high levels of patient satisfaction.",
    keywords = "arthroscopic surgery, clinical outcomes, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI), rehabilitation",
    author = "Ebert, {Jay R.} and Michael Fallon and Wood, {David J.} and Janes, {Gregory C.}",
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    A Prospective Clinical and Radiological Evaluation at 5 Years after Arthroscopic Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation. / Ebert, Jay R.; Fallon, Michael; Wood, David J.; Janes, Gregory C.

    In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 59-69.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A Prospective Clinical and Radiological Evaluation at 5 Years after Arthroscopic Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation

    AU - Ebert, Jay R.

    AU - Fallon, Michael

    AU - Wood, David J.

    AU - Janes, Gregory C.

    PY - 2017/1/1

    Y1 - 2017/1/1

    N2 - Background: While midterm outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are encouraging, the procedure permits an arthroscopic approach that may reduce the morbidity of arthrotomy and permit accelerated rehabilitation. Hypothesis: A significant improvement in clinical and radiological outcomes after arthroscopic MACI will exist through to 5 years after surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the first 31 patients (15 male, 16 female) who underwent MACI via arthroscopic surgery to address symptomatic tibiofemoral chondral lesions. MACI was followed by a structured rehabilitation program in all patients. Clinical scores were administered preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months as well as 1, 2, and 5 years after surgery. These included the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm knee scale (LKS), Tegner activity scale (TAS), visual analog scale for pain, Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), active knee motion, and 6-minute walk test. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to assess peak knee extension and flexion strength and limb symmetry indices (LSIs) between the operated and nonoperated limbs. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperatively to evaluate graft repair as well as calculate the MRI composite score. Results: There was a significant improvement (P <.05) in all KOOS subscale scores, LKS and TAS scores, the SF-36 physical component score, pain frequency and severity, active knee flexion and extension, and 6-minute walk distance. Isokinetic knee extension strength significantly improved, and all knee extension and flexion LSIs were above 90% (apart from peak knee extension strength at 1 year). At 5 years, 93% of patients were satisfied with MACI to relieve their pain, 90% were satisfied with improving their ability to undertake daily activities, and 80% were satisfied with the improvement in participating in sport. Graft infill (P =.033) and the MRI composite score (P =.028) significantly improved over time, with 90% of patients demonstrating good to excellent tissue infill at 5 years. There were 2 graft failures at 5 years after surgery. Conclusion: The arthroscopically performed MACI technique demonstrated good clinical and radiological outcomes up to 5 years, with high levels of patient satisfaction.

    AB - Background: While midterm outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are encouraging, the procedure permits an arthroscopic approach that may reduce the morbidity of arthrotomy and permit accelerated rehabilitation. Hypothesis: A significant improvement in clinical and radiological outcomes after arthroscopic MACI will exist through to 5 years after surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the first 31 patients (15 male, 16 female) who underwent MACI via arthroscopic surgery to address symptomatic tibiofemoral chondral lesions. MACI was followed by a structured rehabilitation program in all patients. Clinical scores were administered preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months as well as 1, 2, and 5 years after surgery. These included the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm knee scale (LKS), Tegner activity scale (TAS), visual analog scale for pain, Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), active knee motion, and 6-minute walk test. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to assess peak knee extension and flexion strength and limb symmetry indices (LSIs) between the operated and nonoperated limbs. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperatively to evaluate graft repair as well as calculate the MRI composite score. Results: There was a significant improvement (P <.05) in all KOOS subscale scores, LKS and TAS scores, the SF-36 physical component score, pain frequency and severity, active knee flexion and extension, and 6-minute walk distance. Isokinetic knee extension strength significantly improved, and all knee extension and flexion LSIs were above 90% (apart from peak knee extension strength at 1 year). At 5 years, 93% of patients were satisfied with MACI to relieve their pain, 90% were satisfied with improving their ability to undertake daily activities, and 80% were satisfied with the improvement in participating in sport. Graft infill (P =.033) and the MRI composite score (P =.028) significantly improved over time, with 90% of patients demonstrating good to excellent tissue infill at 5 years. There were 2 graft failures at 5 years after surgery. Conclusion: The arthroscopically performed MACI technique demonstrated good clinical and radiological outcomes up to 5 years, with high levels of patient satisfaction.

    KW - arthroscopic surgery

    KW - clinical outcomes

    KW - magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    KW - matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI)

    KW - rehabilitation

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    JO - The American Journal of Sports Medicine

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