A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in depressed adult women in the United Kingdom: Secondary analysis of individual variability of depression

Ioannis D. Morres, Anton Hinton-Bayre, Efthymios Motakis, Tim Carter, Patrick Callaghan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: This study is a secondary analysis of the trial by Callaghan et al. (2011), which reported higher antidepressant effects for preferred intensity (n = 19) vs. prescribed intensity (n = 19) exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks in depressed women. In particular, the present study sought to examine whether greater clinically significant individual change/recovery was observed in the preferred compared to the prescribed exercise group. Methods: The reliable change index and the Ccutoff score criteria described by Jacobson and Truax (1991) were employed to determine clinical significance. These criteria examined if individual change in depression scores from pre- to post-intervention in the preferred intensity group were statistically significant beyond the standard error of difference derived from the active comparator prescribed group, and subsequently within a normal population range. Patients fulfilling the first or both criteria were classified as improved or recovered, respectively. Results: Post-intervention depression scores of six patients in the preferred intensity exercise group (32%) demonstrated statistically reliable improvement (p < 0.05) and recovery. Half of this subgroup started as moderately depressed. No patient demonstrated a reliable deterioration in depression. Due to a small sample size, it was impossible to determine whether patients on psychiatric medication or medication-free patients were equally benefited from preferred intensity exercise. Thirteen patients in the preferred intensity group (68%) displayed non-statistically significant change in post-intervention depression scores (p > 0.05), although eight of them showed a non-significant improvement in post-intervention depression scores and three could not technically show an improvement in depression due to floor effects (baseline depression within normal range). Conclusions: Preferred intensity exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks led almost a third of the patients to record scores consistent with recovery from depression. Health professionals may consider that short-term preferred intensity exercise provides clinically significant antidepressant effects comparing favourably to exercise on prescription.

Original languageEnglish
Article number941
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2019

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Randomized Controlled Trials
Exercise
Antidepressive Agents
Reference Values
Prescriptions
United Kingdom
Health
Population

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title = "A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in depressed adult women in the United Kingdom: Secondary analysis of individual variability of depression",
abstract = "Background: This study is a secondary analysis of the trial by Callaghan et al. (2011), which reported higher antidepressant effects for preferred intensity (n = 19) vs. prescribed intensity (n = 19) exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks in depressed women. In particular, the present study sought to examine whether greater clinically significant individual change/recovery was observed in the preferred compared to the prescribed exercise group. Methods: The reliable change index and the Ccutoff score criteria described by Jacobson and Truax (1991) were employed to determine clinical significance. These criteria examined if individual change in depression scores from pre- to post-intervention in the preferred intensity group were statistically significant beyond the standard error of difference derived from the active comparator prescribed group, and subsequently within a normal population range. Patients fulfilling the first or both criteria were classified as improved or recovered, respectively. Results: Post-intervention depression scores of six patients in the preferred intensity exercise group (32{\%}) demonstrated statistically reliable improvement (p < 0.05) and recovery. Half of this subgroup started as moderately depressed. No patient demonstrated a reliable deterioration in depression. Due to a small sample size, it was impossible to determine whether patients on psychiatric medication or medication-free patients were equally benefited from preferred intensity exercise. Thirteen patients in the preferred intensity group (68{\%}) displayed non-statistically significant change in post-intervention depression scores (p > 0.05), although eight of them showed a non-significant improvement in post-intervention depression scores and three could not technically show an improvement in depression due to floor effects (baseline depression within normal range). Conclusions: Preferred intensity exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks led almost a third of the patients to record scores consistent with recovery from depression. Health professionals may consider that short-term preferred intensity exercise provides clinically significant antidepressant effects comparing favourably to exercise on prescription.",
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A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in depressed adult women in the United Kingdom : Secondary analysis of individual variability of depression. / Morres, Ioannis D.; Hinton-Bayre, Anton; Motakis, Efthymios; Carter, Tim; Callaghan, Patrick.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 19, No. 1, 941, 12.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in depressed adult women in the United Kingdom

T2 - Secondary analysis of individual variability of depression

AU - Morres, Ioannis D.

AU - Hinton-Bayre, Anton

AU - Motakis, Efthymios

AU - Carter, Tim

AU - Callaghan, Patrick

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N2 - Background: This study is a secondary analysis of the trial by Callaghan et al. (2011), which reported higher antidepressant effects for preferred intensity (n = 19) vs. prescribed intensity (n = 19) exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks in depressed women. In particular, the present study sought to examine whether greater clinically significant individual change/recovery was observed in the preferred compared to the prescribed exercise group. Methods: The reliable change index and the Ccutoff score criteria described by Jacobson and Truax (1991) were employed to determine clinical significance. These criteria examined if individual change in depression scores from pre- to post-intervention in the preferred intensity group were statistically significant beyond the standard error of difference derived from the active comparator prescribed group, and subsequently within a normal population range. Patients fulfilling the first or both criteria were classified as improved or recovered, respectively. Results: Post-intervention depression scores of six patients in the preferred intensity exercise group (32%) demonstrated statistically reliable improvement (p < 0.05) and recovery. Half of this subgroup started as moderately depressed. No patient demonstrated a reliable deterioration in depression. Due to a small sample size, it was impossible to determine whether patients on psychiatric medication or medication-free patients were equally benefited from preferred intensity exercise. Thirteen patients in the preferred intensity group (68%) displayed non-statistically significant change in post-intervention depression scores (p > 0.05), although eight of them showed a non-significant improvement in post-intervention depression scores and three could not technically show an improvement in depression due to floor effects (baseline depression within normal range). Conclusions: Preferred intensity exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks led almost a third of the patients to record scores consistent with recovery from depression. Health professionals may consider that short-term preferred intensity exercise provides clinically significant antidepressant effects comparing favourably to exercise on prescription.

AB - Background: This study is a secondary analysis of the trial by Callaghan et al. (2011), which reported higher antidepressant effects for preferred intensity (n = 19) vs. prescribed intensity (n = 19) exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks in depressed women. In particular, the present study sought to examine whether greater clinically significant individual change/recovery was observed in the preferred compared to the prescribed exercise group. Methods: The reliable change index and the Ccutoff score criteria described by Jacobson and Truax (1991) were employed to determine clinical significance. These criteria examined if individual change in depression scores from pre- to post-intervention in the preferred intensity group were statistically significant beyond the standard error of difference derived from the active comparator prescribed group, and subsequently within a normal population range. Patients fulfilling the first or both criteria were classified as improved or recovered, respectively. Results: Post-intervention depression scores of six patients in the preferred intensity exercise group (32%) demonstrated statistically reliable improvement (p < 0.05) and recovery. Half of this subgroup started as moderately depressed. No patient demonstrated a reliable deterioration in depression. Due to a small sample size, it was impossible to determine whether patients on psychiatric medication or medication-free patients were equally benefited from preferred intensity exercise. Thirteen patients in the preferred intensity group (68%) displayed non-statistically significant change in post-intervention depression scores (p > 0.05), although eight of them showed a non-significant improvement in post-intervention depression scores and three could not technically show an improvement in depression due to floor effects (baseline depression within normal range). Conclusions: Preferred intensity exercise of three sessions/week over four weeks led almost a third of the patients to record scores consistent with recovery from depression. Health professionals may consider that short-term preferred intensity exercise provides clinically significant antidepressant effects comparing favourably to exercise on prescription.

KW - Depression

KW - Exercise

KW - Individual clinical significance

KW - Preferred intensity

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DO - 10.1186/s12889-019-7238-7

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