Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided trans-bronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is minimally invasive technique used for diagnosis and/or staging of benign and malignant pulmonary and non-pulmonary disease. Previous studies have established the utility of EBUS-TBNA in narrowly defined indications and populations. In this pragmatic 'real world' study we have analysed the use of EBUS-TBNA for a variety of clinical presentations and its clinical application in conjunction with other invasive investigations. Methods: All EBUS-TBNA procedures performed at Sir Charles Gardiner Hospital in 2012-2014 were reviewed retrospectively, using relevant hospital databases. Results: A total of 327 patients underwent 337 EBUS-TBNA procedures. EBUS-TBNA procedures were used to diagnose a wide spectrum of benign and malignant conditions. The main application was in the diagnosis and staging of malignant conditions (70.6%), and in the diagnosis of benign conditions such as sarcoidosis 40 (12.2%), and silicoanthracosis 17 (5.2%). EBUS-TBNA was sufficient to diagnose and stage the disease as a single stand-alone invasive procedure in 191 (59.2%) patients. EBUS-TBNA was the final invasive procedure undertaken in 283 (87.6%) patients. Only 13.3% of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who had EBUS-TBNA as a first investigation required multiple procedures compared to 51.1% of all NSCLC patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA. Overall sensitivity, specificity, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for EBUS-TBNA were 89.7, 100, 85.1 and 89.9%, respectively and three minor complications (0.9%) occurred as a result of the procedure. Conclusions: EBUS-TBNA was undertaken for a wide variety of clinical conditions. Good diagnostic accuracy and safety profiles were demonstrated for the procedure, supporting its application as a first line investigation in the diagnosis and/or staging of a range of malignant and benign conditions. Our study was unique in its documentation of the use of EBUS-TBNA in a real-world setting in conjunction with other invasive modalities. EBUS-TBNA was utilised as a stand alone invasive procedure in more than half of the patients. Importantly, in NSCLC, when EBUS-TBNA was performed as primary diagnostic and staging investigation, less patients underwent subsequent invasive procedures.